a light microscope, visible light is passed through a specimen and then through
glass lenses. The lenses refract the light is such a way that the image of the
specimen is magnified as it is projected into the eye, onto photographic film
or digital sensor, ot onto a video screen.
how does an electron microscope work?
an electron microscope it focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or
onto its surface.
describe the structer of membranes
made up of phospholipid bilayer and proteins
compounds made of amino acids
Glycoprotein components and function
glycan covalently attatched to polypeptide side chains.
- They allow certain types of cell-to-cell communication, help coordinate
complicated cellular responses to stimuli, and activate the action of other
types of cells.
what is a glycoglipid composed of and its function
with carbohydrate attatched
-are carbohydrate attached lipids. Their role is to provide energy and also
serve as markers for cellular recognition.
steroid, metabolite. Found in cell membrane
whats the difference between a transmembrane and peripheral proteins
1) Transmembrane are embeded into the membrane and peripheral are loosely attatched to the outside.
hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane
a protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with its ative site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution.
signal transduction psirotein
A membrane protein (receptor)may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as a hormone. the external messenger may cause a shape change in the protein that relays the message to the inside of the cell
intercellular joining protein
membrane bound proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of junctions such as gap junctions or tight junctions
or other elements noncovalantly bounded
to membrane proteins, function helps maintain cell shape and stabilizes location