524 exam 2.1

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524 exam 2.1
2010-10-24 19:53:39
exam dr bryant

muscle types and anatomy
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  1. large muscles responsible for body movement and locomotion (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    skeletal muscle
  2. contains large muscle cells (up to 1 foot or more in length) (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    skeletal muscle
  3. mutinucleated (nucleus located in periphery, closer to cell membrane), striated (banded) appearance (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    skeletal muscle
  4. referred to as striated voluntary muscle, nervous system provides voluntary control (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    skeletal muscle
  5. has some ability to repair itself using myosatellite cells (stem cells) (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    skeletal muscle
  6. description: cells are long, cylindrical, striated and multinucleate (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    skeletal muscle
  7. function: moves or stabilizes the position of the skeleton, guards entrances and exits to the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts; generates heat; protects internal organs
    skeletal muscle
  8. skeletal muscle drug that targets nicotinic ACh receptor? ex: neostigmine, pyridostigmine, and ambenonium
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors
    • skeletal muscle drugs target nicotinic ACh receptor
    • how muscle contraction works: Acetylcholine stimulates muscle to contract
    • ACh broken down by cholinesterase to stop muscle contraction
    • cholinesterase inhibitors decrease the breakdown of ACh
    • used as treatment for myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness)
  9. location: only in the heart (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    cardiac muscle
  10. cells are short, branched, and striated, usually a single nucleus; cells are connected by intercalated discs (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    cardiac muscle
  11. function: circulates blood; maintains blood (hydrostatic) pressure (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    cardiac muscle
  12. limited ability to repair itself; although it can divide some after injury to the heart, the repairs are incomplete and some function is usually lost (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    cardiac muscle
  13. refferred to as striated involuntary muscle (relies on pacemaker cells)
    cardiac muscle
  14. specialized cardiac muscle cells that establish the rate of contraciton
    pacemaker cells
  15. interconnect muscle cells, membranes are linked together via gap junctions; ion movements help synchronize the contraction of the cells;
    • intercalated discs
    • allows structural, electrical and chemical connection
    • bec the myofibrils are locked together, the 2 muscle cells can "pull together with max efficiency
  16. cardiocytes
    muscle cell
  17. almost completely dependent on aerobic metabolism; therefore, need glycogen and lipids, lots of mitochondria and myoglobin (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    cardiac muscle
  18. meaning: full mass of cells
    • bec of intercalated discs, get connection between muscle cells
  19. posses property of AUTOMATICITY (contraction without the stimulation by nervous system) (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    • cardiac muscle
    • bec it's involuntary, it can act on its own w/o stimulation from nervous system
    • the nervous system can alter the pace established by the pacemaker cells
  20. a cardiac muscle drug that decreases heart rate and cardiac output; used as antihypertensive, anti-anginals, anti-arrhythmics; used by someone that has too much pressure in the heart so use this to decrease pressure
    • ex: verapamil and diltiazem
  21. a cardiac muscle drug that blocks the affects of the sympathetic nervous system stimulation; sympathetic nervous system ACTIVATES the heart, basically speeds it up; used to treat angina, hypertension, chronic heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias
    • ex: metoprolol, carvedilol, and atenolol
    • ends in -lol
  22. cardiac muscle drug that inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase, ultimately increases intracellular calcium (indirect effect); acts to increase contractility; used to treat heart failure
  23. cells are short, spindle-shaped and nonstriated, with a single, central nucleus; tapering ends with circular nucleus; disorganized thick and thin filaments (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    smooth muscle
  24. location: walls of blood vessels and in digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive organs (hollow organs) (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    smooth muscle
  25. have the ability to divide, repair after injury (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    smooth muscle
  26. referred to as nonstriated involuntary muscle (nervous system, hormones can affect smooth muscle); affected by nervous system BUT not under conscious control (skeletal, cardiac or smooth?)
    smooth muscle
  27. function: moves food, urine and reproductive tract secretions; controls diameter of respiratory passageways; regulates diameter of blood vessels
    smooth muscle
  28. what are the 4 ways that smooth muscles differ from other muscle cells?
    • 1. excitation-contraciton coupling
    • 2. length-tension relationships
    • 3. control of contractions
    • 4. smooth muscle tone
  29. describe: excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle cells
    • free calcium in cytoplasm triggers contraction
    • calcium enters cell and causes sarcoplasmic reticulum to release more calcium
    • calcium then interacts with CALMODULIN
    • calmodulin activates myosin light chain kinase
    • this allows myosin head to attach to actin, cause contraction
  30. describe: length-tension relationships in smooth muscle cells
    • tension and length are not directly related bec thick and thin filaments are scattered and not organized into sarcomeres
    • has PLASTICITY: ability to function over wide range of lengths
    • basically helps with changes in volume, ex in the stomach
  31. describe: control of contractions in smooth muscle cells (remember 2 types: multiunit smooth muscle cells and visceral smooth muscle cells)
    • mutiunit smooth muscle cells are innervated in motor units just like skeletal muscle; so we have smooth muscles that can be innervated and controlled but act more slowly than skeletal
    • visceral smooth muscle cells lack direct connection with motor neuron; responds to chemicals, hormones, gases, stretching or pacesetter cells; undergoes spontaneous depolarization, cycles of activity
  32. smooth muscle durg that blocks vasoconstriction (diameter of blood vessels to decrease) to lower BP; so blocking this would decrease BP bec allows more blood to flow; used to treat hypertension
    • ex: losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), candesartan (Atacand)
    • ends in -tan
  33. smooth muscle drugs that are used to treat angina; metabolizes nitroglycerin to nitric oxide which then dilates veins and coronary arteries
  34. smooth muscle drugs; sympathomimetics cause bronchodilation; used to treat ASTHMA
  35. fascicles
    bundles of muscle fibers
  36. fascicle organization: parallel muscles... description and example?
    • fascicles are parallel to long axis of muscle; most common
    • ex: biceps brachii
  37. fascicle organization: convergent muscles... description and example?
    • fascicles extend over a broad area and converge on a common attachment site
    • basically looks like a fan
    • direction of pull can change depending on part of muscle stimulated
    • ex: pectoral muscle
  38. fascicle organization: circular muscles (sphincter)... description and example
    • fascicles are concentrically arranged (in a circle)
    • during most muscle contraction, diameter of opening decreases
    • ex: orbicularis oris, the muscle that surrounds lips
  39. fascicle organization: unipennate muscle... description and example?
    • pennate = fascicles form a common angle with the tendon
    • for unipennate, muscle fiber is on one side of the tendon
    • ex: extensor digitorum muscle
  40. fascicle organization: bipennate muscle... description and example?
    • pennate = fascicles form a common angle with the tendon
    • for bipennate, muscle fibers on both sides of tendon
  41. fascicle organization: mutipennate muscle... description and example?
    • pennate = fascicles form a common angle with the tendon
    • for multipennate muscle, when tendon branches within a pennate muscle
    • ex: deltoid muscle
  42. describe and give an example of first class lever
    • looks like a seesaw: fulcrum is between applied force and load
  43. describe and give an example of a second class lever
    • looks like a wheelbarrow: fulcrum is on the end and load is on the middle
  44. describe and give an example of a third class lever
    • most common in the body
    • applied force is between the load and the fulcrum
    • shown: contracting bicep muscle
  45. fixed end of a muscle
  46. free movable end of a muscle
  47. COMPARE: agonist and antagonist
    • agonist: main muscle responsible for movement
    • antagonist: muscle who's action opposes a particular agonist
    • in picture: biceps and triceps move opposite each other
    • biceps = agonist, triceps = antagonist
  48. what are the 4 muscles of mastication? what do they move?
    • 1. BUCCINATOR: move food around in mouth, compresses cheek
    • 2. MASSETER: elevates mandible, closes jaws
    • 3. TEMPORALIS: elevates mandible
    • 4. PTERYGOIDS (medial and lateral): medial closes jaws while lateral opens jaws
  49. what are the 6 extrinsic eye muscles? how do they move the eye?
    • [4 rectus and 2 oblique]
    • 1. inferior rectus: eye looks down
    • 2. medial rectus: eye looks medially
    • 3. lateral rectus: eye looks laterally
    • 4. superior rectus: eye looks up
    • 5. inferior oblique: eye ROLLS, looks UP and laterally
    • 6. superior oblique: eye ROLLS, looks DOWN and laterally
  50. what are the 3 abdominal muscles she wants us to remember? what do they do?
    • 1. rectus abdominus: depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen
    • 2. internal oblique & external oblique: compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine
  51. what 3 things pass through the diaphragm?
    inferior vena cava, thoracic aorta, esophagus

  52. muscles in the upper body??? recognize these!!!
    1. trapezius
    2. deltoid
    3. internal and external intercostals
    4. latissimus dorsi
    5. pectoralis major (not shown: but makes the "pecs")
    6. muscles of the rotator cuff (next slide)
  53. what are the 4 muscles that make up the rotator cuff?
    (don't need to know location, just know which muscles)
    • 1. SUPRAspinatus
    • 2. INFRAspinatus
    • 3. subscapularis
    • 4. teres minor
  54. inflammation of the retinacula/extensor retinaculum (the band that makes a tunnel for all the tendons that go up the hand) and synovial tendon sheaths; compresses median nerve (the nerve that innervates the hand); causes pain, tingling or numbness on palm
    carpal tunnel syndrome
  55. what are the treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome? (3)
    • 1. aspirin: for the pain
    • 2. glucocorticoid injection: inflammation
    • 3. splint: to take the pressure off until inflammation goes away
  56. what are the 3 muscles that make up the hamstring? (flexors and extensors of the knee)
    • 1. biceps femoris
    • 2. semitendinosus
    • 3. semimembranosus
  57. what are the 4 muscles that make up the quadriceps? (flexors and extensors of the knee)
    • 1. rectus femoris
    • 2. vastus lateralis
    • 3. vastus medialis
    • 4. vastus intermedius (can't be seen in picture bec its deep)

  58. what are the muscles that move the foot and toes? (4)
    • 1. gastrocnemius medial head
    • 2. gastrocnemius lateral head
    • 3. soleus
    • 4. popliteus

  59. what muscles do injections go into? why?
    • slower release than iv injection
    • less irritation and more volume than subcutaneous (can inject up to 5mL at once)
    • most popular sites: gluteus medius (upper side of hip), deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis is the best (most popular with children = upper thigh)
  60. what are common complications if they don't do intramuscular injections?
    • injection of blood vessel - possible fatality (goes straight to circulation, can cause toxicity and death!)
    • injection of a nerve - possible sensory loss or paralysis