Anatomy Test 2

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Anatomy Test 2
2010-10-16 16:46:57
Anatomy test

Anatomy Test 2
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  1. Define Ventilation
    Air exchange between atmosphere and alveoli.
  2. Define External Respiration
    Gas exchange ( O2 & CO2) between alveoli and blood.
  3. Define Internal Respiration
    Gas exchange ( O2 & CO2) between blood and body cells.
  4. Define Phonation
    Vibration of True Vocal Cords.
  5. Define Volume as it applies to the respiratory system.
    Loudness. The force of the air flow causing greater displacement of the vibrating cords.
  6. Define Pitch and explain how high pitch can be produced.
    • The rate of vibration of the vocal chords.
    • High Pitch Low Pitch
    • shorter longer
    • thinner thicker
    • tighter looser
  7. Define Articulation and list the structures involved in articulation.
    • The production of the sounds of speech.
    • Produced by pharynx, palate, lips, teeth and tongue.
  8. Define Resonance. What is the function of resonance?
    • The vibration of an air chamber along with a vibrating object.
    • The function is to increase the volume of sound.
  9. List the Primary Inspiratory muscles.
    Diaphragm and External Intercostals
  10. List the Accessory (Forced) Inspiratory muscles.
    Sternocleidomastoid, Scalenes, Pectoralis Minor.
  11. List the Accessory (Forced) Expiratory Muscles. What is their function?
    Internal Intercostals & Abdominals. Function of Forced Expiration.
  12. What is the function of the Conducting Zone?
    Passageway of air movement; cells help to clean the air. Located from Larynx to Terminal Bronchiole.
  13. What structures are part of the Conducting Zone?
    Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Terminal Bronchioles.
  14. What is the function of the Respiratory Zone?
    Gas exchange between alveoli and the blood
  15. What structures are part of the Respiratory Zone?
    Respiratory Bronchiole, Alveolar Duct, Alveolar Sac, Alveolus.
  16. In what part of the resp. tract do asthma reactions occur? What anatomical reason allows asthma reactions to occur here?
    Within the terminal bronchioles. Anatomical reasons are that there is smooth muscle, but no cartilage.
  17. Describe the role of pressure during inspiration.
    When pressure decreases, air flows in.
  18. Describe Boyles law. Explain why this law is important in our study of respiration.
    When Volume increases, Pressure decreases. When Volume decreases, Pressure increases. This is important because air always moves from high pressure to low.
  19. List 2 factors which aid in lung recoil.
    Lung recoil is during expiration. The factors are elastic fibers and surface tension.
  20. List 2 factors which prevent lung recoil.
    This is during inspiration. The factors are negative plural pressure and surfactant.
  21. Define Compliance
    The ease of Inspiration.
  22. Explain the term airway resistance.
    The flow of the air Decreases when the diameter of the passageway Decreases.
  23. List 2 anatomical features facilitating gas exchange in the lungs.
    Thin respiratory membrane and large surface area.
  24. List 2 physiological processes ensuring gas exchange in the lungs.
    • 1. Blood flow is directly proportional to ventilation rate.
    • 2. Large Functional Residual Capacity.
  25. Define Functional Residual Capacity. Why is it important?
    The amount of air left in the lungs after a normal expiration. There must be air left in the lungs because the blood needs to be constantly oxygenated.
  26. Explain the term Diffusion g´╗┐radient. What is meant by "diffusing down the gradient".
    High concentration of O2 in alveoli diffuses to low O2 in the blood. High concentration of CO2 in blood diffuses to low concentration of CO2 in alveoli. There is higher concentration in the blood, and diffusion always goes from high to low.
  27. What is Daltons Law? Explain why this law is important in our study of respiration.
    That each gas in a mixture behaves as if no other gas is present. The gases always go from high partial pressure to low partial pressure.
  28. What is Henrys Law? Explain why this law is important in our study of respiration.
    • How much of a gas dissolves in a liquid depends on the pressure of the gas above the liquid. High partial pressure=much gas dissolved and vice versa.
    • Solubility of gases
    • CO2=good solubility
    • O2=poor solubility
    • N2=very poor solubility
  29. Gases diffuse because of differences in partial pressure from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower partial pressure. True or False.
  30. Rank PO2 of the capillaries, the cells, and the ISF from highest PO2 to lowest PO2 in the area of the arterial end of the tissue capillaries.
    • Tissue Capillaries, ISF, Cells.
    • 95 40 20
  31. What is the PCO2 of alveolar gas? PO2 of alveolar gas?
    PCO2=45 PO2=104
  32. What is the PCO2 of ISF? PO2 of ISF?
    PCO2=45 PO2=40
  33. What is the PCO2 of deoxygenated blood leaving the tissues? PO2 of deoxygenated blood leaving the tissues?
    • PCO2=45 PO2=40
    • This is because the blood is now deoxygenated (blue) blood, and is in the systemic veins returning towards the alveoli to pick up more O2 and drop off more CO2.
  34. Oxygen is transported in Hemoglobin. Explain the structure of Hb, and what fully saturated means.
    The structure contains 4 protein chains, each with a heme. When Hb is fully saturated, it means that an O@ is bound to each heme. 4 O2=fully saturated.
  35. Hb is fully loaded at what plasma PO2? Where does this happen?
    At plasma PO2 of 104. This happens at the alveoli.
  36. As plasma PO2 drops from 104 to 40, Hb will __________ O2.
  37. Describe how plasma pH affects the unloading of oxygen.
    As pH drops, Hb unloads O2 to cells.
  38. Explain how CO2 levels affect unloading of oxygen.
    Drop in pH forces the unloading of O2.
  39. Explain how temp affects the unloading of oxygen.
    Increased temp means that the cells are more active, therefore causing more O2 to unload.
  40. List the ways CO2 is transported from highest percentage to lowest percentage.
    70% is carried in plasma as bicarbonate, 20% transported on Hb, 7% dissolved in plasma as CO2.
  41. Write the equation showing what happens when Carbon dioxide combines with water.
    CO2 + O2--> H2CO3--> H+ + HCO3-
  42. What part of the brain controls the respiratory center?
  43. Inspiration is controlled by _________ neurons.
  44. Ventral respiratory neurons cause ____________.
    Forced expiration
  45. What is the function of the pontine respiratory group?
    Switching from Inspiration to Expiration.
  46. What is the function of the Hering-Breuer reflex? What nerve is involved?
    It prevents overinflation of the lungs. The Vagus nerve.
  47. What molecule controls ventilation rate? Explain.
    CO2 via pH is the major control, due to the formation of carbonic acid.
  48. Define Hypercapnia. What is the cause?
    Too much CO2. Cause is decrease in ventilation rate.
  49. What type of receptors are PO2 receptors? What color is the blood that they sample? Where are they located?
    They are chemoreceptors. Sample red blood. And are found in the carotid and aortic arteries.
  50. PO2 receptors respond only to large decreases in PO2 of plasma.
  51. Why does ventilation increase immediately during exercise?
    Joint receptors are stimulated.
  52. During exercise, average PO2, PCO2 and pH of the blood _________________.
    Stay the same.
  53. If anaerobic threshold is exceeded, lactic acid levels ____________, and ventilation rate _____________.
    Increase, Increases.
  54. Explain the differences between pulmonary and systemic vessels.
    • Pulmonary: To and from the lungs
    • Systemic: Out to the body
  55. Explain the difference between artery and vein.
    • Artery: Vessel that carries blood away from the heart
    • Vein: Vessel that carries blood toward the heart.
  56. Why are capillaries considered the most important vessels of the circulatory system?
    Because they are microscopic exchange vessels throughout the tissues which connect the tiniest arteries to the tiniest veins, ensuring full saturation of tissues.
  57. What is the primary function of the heart?
    Pump the blood.
  58. List the structures of the circulatory system in the order that the blood flows through the heart.
    • Blue blood: Superior&Inferior vena cava& coronary sinus--> Right atrium--> Through tricuspid valve--> Right ventricle--> Through pulmonary semilunar valve--> Pulmonary artery--> Alveoli
    • Red Blood: From lungs--> 4 pulmonary veins--> Left atrium--> Bicuspid valve--> Left ventricle--> Through aortic semilunar valve--> aorta--> all of the body except alveoli.
  59. Compare and contrast cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle.
    • Cardiac: Striated, single nucleus, Involuntary contract, Only twitch contractions.
    • Skeletal: Striated, single nucleus, Voluntary contract, Sustained contractions.
  60. Explain the differences of the action potential in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
    Cardiac: Long action potential causes long refractory period, which prevents heart from prolonged contractions. Can only undergo twitch contractions. Plateau phase allows for large amounts of Ca++ to diffuse in.

    Skeletal: Short action potential causes short refractory period, allows prolonged contractions. Can undergo sustained and twitch contractions. No plateau phase.
  61. What is the skeleton of the heart?
    Fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles.
  62. List the functions of the skeleton of the heart.
    • 1.Supports openings of the heart.
    • 2. Attaches cardiac muscle
    • 3. Insulates atria from ventricles
    • Significance: Need a way to get action potential from atria to ventricles.
  63. What is the pacemaker of the heart?
    S-A Node
  64. List the order of conduction of the heart tissues.
    S-A Node--> Atrial muscle cells--> A-V Node--> Atrioventricular bundle--> Left and right bundle branches--> Purkinje fibers--> Ventricular muscle cells.
  65. List the electrical events of the heart cycle in order. What does each event signal?
    • P wave: Atrial depolarization: Signals atrial systole--> Atrial repolarization: Signals atrial diastole
    • QRS wave: Ventricular Depolarization: Signals ventricular systole
    • T wave: Ventricular repolarization: Signals ventricular diastole
  66. Explain the difference between limb and chest leads for the EKG.
    • Limb leads: Give an "average" EKG
    • Chest leads: Give the EKG of signals coming from directly under the recording electrodes.
  67. Describe a typical EKG wave.
    • P wave: Atrial Depolarization
    • QRS complex: Ventricular Depolarization
    • T Wave: Ventricular Repolarization
  68. List 4 arrhythmias and explain their diagnostic significance.
    • 1. Bradycardia: Slow resting HR <60BPM
    • 2. Tachycardia: Fast resting HR >100+ BPM
    • 3. Premature ventricular contraction: No P wave, caused by Ectopic foci.
    • 4. Ventricular Fibrillation: Heart flutters, fatal without medical intervention.
  69. Compare and contrast systole and diastole
    • Systole: Heart muscle is contracting
    • Diastole: Heart muscle is relaxing.
  70. What is the total rest time of the atria during the cardiac cycle?
    .7 sec or 7/8 of the time.
  71. What is the total rest time of the ventricles during the cardiac cycle?
    .5 seconds or 5/8 of the time
  72. What two vessels are considered the great arteries?
    Pulmonary artery and Aorta
  73. When Pa>Pv, the ______ valves _______.
    AV, open
  74. When Pga>Pv, the ______ valves_____.
    SL, close.
  75. During atrial systole, the ventricles are in _______, Blood flows from the _______to the _______ because pressure in the atria is __________ pressure in the ventricles.
    During atrial systole, the ventricles are in diastole, Blood flows from the atria to the ventricles because pressure in the atria is greater than pressure in the ventricles.
  76. During ventricular diastole, the atria are in ________. The _______ valves _________ which makes the ______ heart sound.
    During ventricular diastole, the atria are in diastole. The SL valves close, which makes the "dupp" heart sound.
  77. Most ventricular filling occurs during ____________.
    Atrial and ventricular diastole, when both are at rest.
  78. Heart sounds occur at the beginning and end of _____________.
    Ventricular systole.
  79. What is the cause of heart murmurs?
    Leaky valves
  80. Define Cardiac Output.
    The flow out of one ventricle of the heart per minute.
  81. What is the relationship between cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate?
    C.O.= S.V. x H.R.
  82. If stroke volume increased, what happens to cardiac output?
  83. Define Cardiac Reserve.
    The maximal increase in C.O. during exertion. Or the difference between maximal cardiac output and cardiac output at rest.
  84. What is the relationship between cardiac output and venous return?
    V.R.= C.O.
  85. If venous return decreases, what happens to cardiac output?
  86. What is Starlings law of the heart?
    Increased filling=increased preload=more forceful systole= Increased S.V=Increased C.O.
  87. If heart rate decreases, cardiac output _________.
  88. Explain parasympathetic control of the heart.
    The rest/repose actions of the heart. Decreases heart rate by cardioregulatory center of medulla being stimulated activating ACh--> Inhibits receptors of S.A. Node--> Decreases H.R.-->Decreases C.O.

    ACh causes hyperpolarization of S.A. Nodes, which inhibits Action potentials.
  89. What hormones are involved with Sympathetic control?
    Norepinephrine and Ca++.

    N.E. increases permeability of Ca++, which stimulates the heart.
  90. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are both produced by the _______________.
    Adrenal medulla
  91. E and NE have what effect on cardiac output?
    Increase cardiac output.
  92. Baroreceptors detect changes in _____________.
    Blood pressure
  93. Is the Baroreceptor reflex a positive or negative feedback system?
  94. Explain the chemoreceptor reflex
    • Relationship of ventilation rate to blood flow to lungs.
    • -increase of CO2 causes drop in pH (increases carbonic acid).
    • -drop in pH increases ventilation rate.
    • -Blood flow to lungs matches ventilation rate
    • -Therefore, if CO2 increases, HR and SV increase to increase CO.
  95. Write the chemical equation involved with the chemoreceptor reflex.
    CO2 + H2O--> H2CO3-->H+ + HCO3-
  96. If pH decreases, ventilation rate__________.
  97. If pH decreases, cardiac output__________.
  98. How does excess potassium ion (K+) influence the heart rate?
    It decreases HR, decreases SV (found in kidney failure).
  99. Explain hoe Calcium channel blockers can be used to treat arrhythmias.
    Calcium ion (Ca++) increases the force of Cardiac contraction.
  100. Does body temp influence heart rate?
    Yes. Increase the temp, you increase the HR. Decrease temp and decrease HR.