Geography 2

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Geography 2
2010-11-12 10:35:31

geography cards
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  1. What is language?
    A systematic means of communicating using convetionalized signs, gestures or vocal sounds

    • ex: sign language, speech
    • ex: even animals can communicate, dolphins can make sounds and birds can actually imitate humans
  2. Language that are similar in vocabulary and grammar are considered to be...
    members of the same language family
  3. _____________ is the most widely-dispersed and most frequently spoke language family.
  4. The 3 most populated languages spoken are...
    • Gemanic
    • Romance
    • Slavic
  5. ___________ is the most widely spoken of Indo-European languages

    **There's also a big percentage of people in the U.S. that don't speak english at home
  6. Approximately how many of the 7000 languages worldwide are lost every week?
    1-2 because people adopt to the new language
  7. Some examples of severely threatened language areas are...
    • Northwest Pacific Plateau - Native
    • Eastern Siberia
    • Northern Australia
  8. How can the origins and diffusion of languages be traced?
    Analysis vocabulary and Sounds shift over time
  9. What is analysis vocabulary?
    Most of the time if the language has a word for "palm tree", most likely the word was developed in areas where there are palm trees.
  10. A language can be diffused by the dispersion of its...

    ex: English in North America from Britain -- we pronounce and spell differently over time
  11. A language can be adopted by speakers of another language.
    Ex: Latin during the Roman Empire
  12. Languages reflect the...
    changing history and geography of the places in which they developed

    ex: English has many words for snow, like a dozen BUT inuit have more because snow is very important to them
  13. Languages change constantly through?
    Contact & Divergence
  14. How are languages changed through contact?
    Convergence is where languages come together and become more similar/

    • Borrowing.
    • ex: brat is english; bratwurst is german; cell phone is english, handy is german

    • Mixing.
    • ex: spanglish
  15. How are languages changed through divergence?
    Develop away from one another
  16. What is dialect?
    It is regional variation of a standard language
  17. Define isogloss
    geographic boundary in which a linguistic features occurs

    ex: a breakfast roll: in different areas of Germany it is also called brotchen, schrippe, rundstuck and semmel
  18. The distinction between a dialect and a language can be...

    • ex:
    • Swedish vs. Danish
    • Czech vs. Slovak
    • Hindi vs. Urdu
  19. 3 Types of languages:
    • Lingua Franca
    • Pidgin
    • Creole
  20. What does lingua franca mean?
    • a language used by people w/different mother tongues (e.g. Swahili)
    • ..... basically, a common language everyone knows
  21. what does pidgin mean?
    a simplified language combining elements of 2 languages
  22. what's creole?
    a language develeoped frm a pidgin; more complex; native language of the 2nd generation
  23. Define standard language
    Is the most recognized (standardized) version of a language

    e.g. High German
  24. Examples of non-standard languages:
    • Dialect
    • Slang
  25. What is an official language?
    The language used by the govt.

    • e.g. Canada has 2 official languages -- English & French
    • e.g. US does not have one
    • Many former colonies have adopted the colonial language as their official language
  26. Multilingualism
    • There are only relatively few monolingual states
    • Japan
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Uruguay
    • Denmark
  27. Most states are multilingual...
    • several official languages
    • often reflected in regional divisions -- most speakers in this setting are monolingual
  28. Many former colonies use a __________ and a _________ language as official language.
    Native & colonial

    • e.g. Peru: Spanish & Quechua (Inca)
    • e.g. Philippines: English & Tagalog
    • e.g. Singapore: English, Chinese, Malay, Tamil
    • e.g. South Africa has 11 offical languages -- 3 of the biggest: Afrikans, Zulu, Xhosa
  29. Switzerland
    • National lanugages: German, French, Italian, Romansh
    • Official languages: German, French, Italian
    • Cantons (states) decide linguistic policy
    • Creation of cantons to protect languages
    • Linguistic issues do not challenge the integrity of the state bc cantons can decide
  30. Canada
    • 1867 British North America Act gives Quebec speical status and protects the French language
    • 1970 & 1980's laws aimed at promoting the use of french -- example: for advertising french letters are a lot bigger than english; govt brochures require to be written in french on one side and english on the other ... or work place require both speakers
  31. Belgium: Linguistic Conflicts
    • 1830 Creation of Belgium
    • -Flemish-speaking Flanders
    • -French speaking Wallonia
    • -Brussesls: bilingual capital region
    • -------> French used to be the dominant, but Flemish is now
    • French speaking Walloons and the Flemish compete for dominance (economically and linguistically)
    • Language is just the tipe of the iceberg: other differences (cultural, political, etc) between the 2 groups
    • Linguistic conflict dominates the political agenda --- Belgium almost broke away
  32. A large population of the world's population uses ___ or more languages on a regular basis
  33. Causes of bilingualism?
    • Migration
    • Colonization ( most influential in past)
    • Intermarriage
    • Education
  34. Bilingual speakers engage in _____________
    Code-switching (using 2 or more languages in the same conversation --- Hmonglish)
  35. Acquisition of 2 languages:
    • Stimultaneously - learning both languages occurs/happens at the same time
    • Successively - ex grew up in France learning French, then come to US and learns English fine
  36. Ways of learnng language stimultaneously
    • One person - one language; example: mom always speaks english and father always speaks spanish
    • Home vs Public - example: both parents speak spanish at home and at school child is spoken to in English
  37. Balanced bilingualism is rare ---
    Most people have a strong and a weak language
  39. What is religion?
    it can be defined as a relatively structured set of beliefs(thinking) and practices(actual doing) through which people seek mental and physcial harmony w/the powers of the universe
  40. Longest practed religions
    • Judaism
    • Hinduism
    • Buddhims
    • Chistianity
  41. Classification of Religions
    • Monotheistic vs Polytheistic
    • Book religion
    • Universalizing relgions
    • Ethnic religions
  42. What is monotheistic?
    One god - Christianity, Judaism, Islam

    the 3 great monotheistic relgions are also called "Abrahamic religions" as they venerate the patriarch Abraham
  43. What is polytheistic?
    Many gods - Hinduism, though they say it is mono becaus it's just all manifestation
  44. What is book religion?
    It is one single text that lays the basics

    • Like:
    • Christianity: Bible
    • Judaism: Torah
    • Islam: Koran
  45. How do you use universalizing religions?
    • Universal application
    • Missionary work, conversion
    • Precise place of origin
    • Linked to a specific person

    examples: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
  46. What is ethnic religions?
    Cannot find it worldwide

    • Limited to certain arieas(limited diffusion)
    • Membership is by birth & is difficult to convert to others
    • Unclear origin

    Examples: Judaism & Hinduism
  48. Judaism hearth (civilization) region is
    represent-day Israel about 3,500 bp
  49. Judaism diaspora (disperse) is
    Dispersal of Jews since the sack of the temple in Jerusalem ad 70

    Judaism have been kicked out, etc. but still somehow are able to retain faith, there's also a high concentration on east coast of US
  50. Judaism is a ________ as well as a _________
    culture, religion
  51. Holy books of Judaism
    • Torah (first 5 books of the Old Testament), written on scrolls
    • Talmud (commentaries on Hebrew scriptures...interprets original text)
  52. Major Jewish Holidays
    Holidays follow a lunar calendar (like Islam)

    • Rosh Hashanah(New Year) time of reflection
    • Yom Kippur (day of atonement)
    • Passover (celebration of Moses leading Jews out of Eygpt): seder meal -- the food all represents something
  53. Branches of Judaism
    • Orthrodox
    • Conservative
    • Reformed
  54. What is considered orthdox Jew?
    • conservative
    • strict gender roles
    • strict food rules (kosher)
    • strict obervance of the Sabbath (no shopping, using electricity, ripping toilet paper)
  55. What is considered conservative Jew?
    • more egalitarian gender roles
    • consume kosher food
    • observe the Sabbath
  56. What is considered reformed Jew?
    • liberal
    • egalitarian, open to mixed marriages
    • relaxed rules about kosher foods & Sabbath -- even accept female rabbis
  57. Zionism is?
    Desire to create a Jewish homeland

    -Judenstaat written by T. Herzl talks about Jews should be able to return to Jerusalem bc it was take over by Palestinian years ago
  58. Christianity
  59. Hearth religion of christianity?
    Islam (middle east)
  60. Christianity spread through....
    • Roman Empire
    • Crusades
    • Colonialism (Spanish & Portugese settling)
    • Missionary activity
  61. Christianity has ____________ number of believers (2 billion)

    BUT Islam is the fastest growing
  62. Christianity is the _________ distribution
  63. The 2 schisms (split) of Christianity:
    • 4th century: Split into Catholic and Orthodox churches
    • (completed 1054 -- taking 600 years)
    • 1517 Reformation: Development of Protestantism following the ideas of Martin Luther
    • ----> Martin Luther also translated something... a book?
  64. Holy book of Christianity?
  65. Christians use what kind of calendar?
  66. Catholicism
    • United under the Pope
    • Elaborate churches and shrines
    • Pilgramages --> one of the important sites in Baltic?, people go there just to pray

    In US, most of Roman Catholic is around southwest area by CA, NV & AZ
  67. Protestantism....
    • Fragmentation into different denominations - Lutherans term is not used in Europe nor Baptist... they have different labeling meanings from U.S.
    • Less visible religious landscapes -- Denmakr has lots of round churches that are very simple
    • Increasingly affected by secularization(split/many) bc no practiced much
  68. Orthodox Christianity
    Split into different churches, one of the big ones: Russion Orthodox
  69. Orthodox christianity is led by?
  70. Orthodox christianity use what kind of calendar?
  71. Some differences of Orthodox christianity from regula christianity?
    • Cross is different - regular cross with an horizontal bar going across on bottom as well
    • Churches are architecturally different
    • Women usually n eed to cover up w/scarf
  72. Orthodox Religions
  73. Orthodox religions emphasizes _______________
    purity of faith
  74. The term orthodox religions means?
    "right teaching" from Greek ortho and dox ----> very conservative
  75. What other religions have orthodox strains?
    • Christianity
    • Judaism
    • Hinduism
    • Islam
  76. Syncretic Religions
  77. Syncretic religions combine __________ of different ________ systems
    elements & belief
  78. Syncretic religions are created by?
    • People that don't want to convert fully so they still practice their own indigenous religion
    • Some people believe someone in their indigenous religion is better so they put that person into other religions--- bring it along
    • A lot of these have similar rituals, so emerge elements
  79. Examples of syncretic religions?
    • Santeria (Cuba & other Caribbean countries) which has Christian elements but also have bontanical items like dolls(saints), other pictures and candles
    • Candomble (Brazil) & Umbanda (Brazil) Spanish which is combined with African religion, they dance a lot and try to dress & act like the god
  80. Hinduism
    is complex
  81. Hinduism hearth area:
    Indus Valley (Pakistan area) - not the core area anymore though
  82. Hinduism is
    • the oldest of the major religions
    • polytheistic (e.g. Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha)
  83. Example of one of the many Hinduism gods: Ganesha
    • it is the god of wisdom, intelligence and education
    • it's most popular amongst college students
  84. Hinduism is a ethnic religion:
    • Limited to India & Nepal
    • -must be born into it & hard to covert out
  85. Hinduism is based on:
    the vedas, which is a collection of stories -- no unified
  86. Some of the Hinduism fundamental doctrine:
    • Karma (transferability of the soul)
    • Reincarnation (body dies, but soul lives) -- how you live your life determines how you return
    • Dharma (rules to conduct)
  87. Hinduism not only is a faith, but it is ______________________________
    a way of life.
  88. Hinduism temples serve as
    the home of one or more gods
  89. Hinduism collective worship is not ________________.
    Most people have a little shrine at home and worship at home
  90. Hinduism Importance
    • Pilgimages
    • Ceremonies, rituals -- Ganges River is very important for rituals, but people also bathe in it, burn dead bodies, sewage...etc
    • Processions - sacred string tied around mens/boys and never take it off; if it ever unravels - gotta have another ceremony/ females have the red dot on mid-forehead
  91. Hinduism is closely connected to the caste system
    • Division of labor
    • -highest to lowest:
    • Brahmins - most of them are vegetarians, Kshatiyas - warriors & rulers, Vaisyas - skilled traders, merchants, Sudras, and Pariah - "Untouchables", "Children of God", "Harijans" - deal w/poop, laundry, etc, kinda like slaves, but paying of debt in life then it passes on the next generation
  92. Hinduism is hierarchy of ____________
  93. An important person of Hinduism was
    Mahatma Gandhi, he tried to eliminate the caste system. Which the caste system is outlawed in the 1950's, "but tradition is not easily overcome."
  94. Buddhism
    It derives from Hinduism, the 2 religions share MANY beliefs, such as dharma & reincarnation
  95. In Buddhism:
    • there is no "real" god, it's kind of a way of life (like Judaism), you determine your own faith because there is no savior to lead/save you
    • Reincarnation: your personality is reborn
  96. Buddhism is...
    • a reaction to Hinduism.
    • It rejects the caste system
  97. Buddhism was founded by:
    • Siddharta Gautama (the Buddha)
    • He was a prince, leaves his castle and meets a person that's sick, dead, etc. He realizes there is so much suffering going on. And starts to meditate by not eating
  98. Buddhism has the belief that enlightenment comes through....
    knowledge, honesty and respect for all living things
  99. The 4 Noble truths deals with ________
  100. The 8 fall paths -- rules ovf overcoming suffering and becoming a good person
    Examples: right views, right thoughts, right conduct, right meditation..etct
  101. Buddhism pagodas are ___________ features of Buddhists and ___________ landscapes.
    prominent, Shintoist.

    Not a place for congregational worship.
  102. The 3 main branches of Buddhism:
    • Theravada (more traditional): older branch and closer to Buddha's original
    • Mahayana: less demanding and empasizes meditation
    • Lamaism (Tibet): monastic and ritualistic -- create sand paintings on ground as a way of meditation then afterwards, they sweet it up because they believe that nothing lasts forever
  103. Smaller Ethnic religions:
    • Confucianism
    • Daoism (Taoism)
    • Shintoism
  104. Confucianism
    • Is more like a philosophy
    • It is rooted in traditional Chinese values
    • Emphasizes discipline, correct behavior, etc
  105. Daoism
    • Stresses spiritual harmony and a balanced life
    • example: how you arrange your furniture in your apt to channel energy flow

    **Both Confucianism and Daoism -- chinese ethnice religions believe that the universe is made up of the 2 forces, yin & yang
  106. Shintoism
    • Japanese religion
    • Natural elements are considered to be divine
    • Ancestor Worship
  107. Islam...
    Islam emerged on the Arabian peninsula in a tribal society
  108. Who is the important person?
    • Muhammad
    • He was a trade r(business man), excellent arbiter (mediator), and respected women a lot
  109. In Islam art Muhammad can only be shown as
    a historical figure, but not a prophet
  110. The story of Islam:
    • Archangel Gabriel revealed God's word to Muhammad, he written it down as the Koran and that it is monotheism religion
    • When Muhammad's wife & uncle died, he lost protection of the tribe - fearing for his life
    • He was invited to function as a mediator in a city that later became known as Medina
    • **The trip to Media markst the official beginning of Muslim calendar
    • For the 1st time, the community was bound together by faith rather than blood
    • The Meccans attacked the Muslims, but the small Muslim army mangaed to hold out (somehow God was protecting them)
    • Over time, more and more people joined Muslim army; it quickly spread the world of Islam
    • Year 632 Muhammad dies
  111. Disagreement about successors
    • Shiites: claim that Muhammad declared Ali his successor - that he is extended family (Iran, parts of Iraq)
    • Sunnis: claim that Muhammad didn't name a successor; accept any qualified person as religious leader (83% of Muslims) - more liberal
  112. Muslim vs Christianity
    They are both very similar, they believe in the same prophets - Jesus, Abraham, etc, but the only difference is Muslim includes the latest propheter, Muhammad
  113. Diffusion man of Islam
    • Spreads through to Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia and some southeastern Europe and Spain *mostly Iran & Iraq
    • Kurds are Muslims, but non-arab
    • The highest percentages of Muslims are in the regions where Islam diffused to early
    • BUT the largest # of Muslims are now in Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh
  114. The Koran (Qur'an) - god's words revealed to Mohammad frm Gabriel
    • Organized into 114 chapters (suras) rather than the Bible which is organized in chronological order
    • Beliefe that the Qur'an can only be truly understood in Arabic (bc when translated, it loses some meaning)
    • Guides all aspects of Muslims' lives -- for example: no drinking alcohol or eating pork are two of the big ones
  115. Sharia Law
    • Based on the Qur'an
    • Has BRUTAL punishment like stoning, cutting off hands..etc. BUT only a small percentage of minorities still practice
    • Oppressive legal system regulating justice questions as well as moral ones
  116. Sources of faith (Islam) **On exam**
    • The 5 Pillars of Islam
    • 1. Profession of faith
    • 2. 5 Daily prayers - which is preferred in the Mosque when able to
    • -Ritual washings (face, hands & feets) - be clean/pure before prayer
    • -Prostration in the direction of Mecca
    • -Fasting during Ramandan - for a month following a Lunar calendar, but there are exceptions for children, pregnantt women, sick ones
    • -Alms-giving to the poor
    • -Pilgramage (Hajj) to Mecca
  117. Holy places for Islam
    • Mecca - birth place of Muhammad and home to the holiest shrine, the Kaaba, which a special blk stone
    • Medina - place where Muhammad is buried
    • Jerusalem
  118. Islamic art involves a lot of
    • geometric design
    • tiles
    • writing is also used as art
    • the Korans are usually a piece of art bc ar can't represent people
  119. Religious Fundamentalism
  120. What is fundamentalism?
    A return to the founding principles of religion, which often includes a literal interpretation of sacred text.

    • -fundamentalism is a reaction to a breakdown of values and a loss of religious authority
    • -it exists in ALL religions - Islamic fundamentalism in the Eygpt, Algeria, Iran & Afghanistan (Taliban) and also Christian fundamentalism in the US
    • Fundamentalism often has a negative impact on women's right
  121. Iran after the Islamic revolution - example 1
    • Women's rights were severely limited
    • -had to wear chador
    • -couldn't wear make-up
    • -complete control by men (must be w/related male when in public)
    • A morality and vice police imprisoned women for not respecting these rules
  122. Iran after the Islamic revolution - example 2
    • The Taliban
    • -Wanted to install a pure Islamic State in Afghanistan
    • -Forbid all forms of entertainment (music, kites)
    • -Severely limited women's rights
    • ~had to wear the burqua -- not showing anything, even face
    • ~couldn't go to school or work
    • ~couldn't be in public w/o a related men
    • ~couldn't get medical care
  123. Religious Conflict (Conflicts w/a religious dimension)
    *Religious is the main cause for any kind of conflict
  124. Samuel Huntington argued in Clash of Civilizations (1996) that,
    the "dominating source of conflict will be cultural... The fault lines between civilizations (religions) will be the battle lines of the future."
  125. Interfaith conflict
    • Interfaith conflict refers to struggles between people of different religions
    • Most important religious fault lines:
    • I. Muslim & Hindu (India/Pakistan)
    • II. Muslim & Chrisitan (Sudan)
    • III. Muslim & Jewish (Israel/Pakistan)
  126. I. Struggles between Muslims & Hindus in South Asia
    • 1) Violent break-up of India & Pakistan
    • ~1947: India becomes independent from Britain
    • -Split intow India and Pakistan
    • -Population transfers are accompanied by violence: Muslims to Pakistan; Hindus to India
    • 2) Kashmir
    • ~India & Pakistan struggle over Muslim Kashmir - it was originally part of Pakistan, but annexed by India AND split through war (India controls south part and Pakistan controls north part)
    • ~India brutaly suppressed Kashmiri resistance to its rule
    • 3) Clashes in India
    • ~Triggered in part by Kashmire Conflict
    • ~Destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu nationalists bc mosque was built on top of the Hindu sacred site
  127. II. Sudan: Christian vs Muslim
    • 1) Civil War
    • -Since colonial times, the north is Muslim, the south Christian
    • -Muslims wanted to impose sharia law on the entire country
    • -Christians refused to accept sharia law = civil war bc they don't believe in the sharia law
    • 2) Genocide in Darfu
    • -Since 2004 the Janjaweed (Arab militia) carry out genocide against Black Africans (Christain or Animists) in Darfur
  128. III. Israel/Palestine
    Religious conflict in the Holy land

    • Jews, Christianity and Muslims claim the region as homelands or holy place
    • Jerusalem:
    • -Jews: location of the Temple (only western wall survives)
    • -Muslims: city from which Muhammed ascended to heaven (Dome of the Rock)
    • Roots of the conflict
    • -Both jews & muslims have legititmate historical claims to the area
    • -during colonial times Britain supported the jews desire to creat a homeland in Palestine (controlled by Muslims) which was originally Jews, but they got kicked out; then muslims emerged and took over the place. now Britain says jews can come back - sot they migrate back
    • -tensions between muslims & immigrated jews
    • -plans to divide Palestine into a Jewish & Palestinian State
    • -proclamation of Israel in 1948; Israel eventually controls most of former Palestine
    • -1960s: Creation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
    • -1980s: First Intifada (Palestinian Uprising)
    • -2000s secon Intifada - attacks on Israel by Palestinians & Israel retaliates (over who controls what)
    • -2000s: Israel builds a fence around Palestinians settlements to protect itself against terrorism
    • -2005: Israel withdraws Jewish settlers from Palestinians territories, but the conflict remains unresolved
  129. IntRAfaith conflict (conflict between branches of the same religion)
    • Historically conflicts between Catholics and Protestants were frequent
    • -Reformation
    • -30 years war
  130. I. Northern Ireland (Catholics vs Protestants)
    • Roots of the Northern Ireland conflict
    • -Protestants frm Britain migrate to Catholic Northern Ireland - Protestants take away land from Catholics
    • -1920's: Southern Ireland achieves independencek, Northern Ireland remains part of the UK

    • The troubles
    • -Catholics are the minority in Northern Ireland; they are discriminated against
    • -1960's: Catholics start a civil rights movement; radicalization leads to terrorism (IRA: Irish Reublican Army)
    • -Despite a peace treaty (1998) clashes between Protestants and Catholics continue
  131. II. Iran & Iraq (Sunnites vs Shiites)
    • -The conflict began in 1980 as Iraq invaded Iran to get access to Iran's oil: Iran resisted fiercely
    • -Iran used the war to export its (Shiite) Islamic revolution, turning into a struggle between Shiites & Sunnites
    • -Today Iraq experiences conflicts between Shiites & Sunnites
  132. Ethnic Geography
  133. What is ethnic geography?
    • studies the distribution of and interactions between ethnic groups
    • -an ethnic group can be distinguished from other by culture, race, language and national origin
  134. What does the term "ethnicity" refer to?
    • shared ancestry and cultural heritage
    • retention of traditions (ex. Spanish Quincinera)
    • maintenance of in group relationships
  135. what is ethnic landscape?
    the physical expression of ethnicity (e.g. architecture, field shapes)
  136. What is ethnocentrism?
    the evaluation of other cultures against the standard of one's own culture (thinknig everyone else is "wrong" except your own)
  137. I. Immigrant Incorporation: Assimilation (example of ethnic geography)
    • Two different interpretations of assimilation
    • -to become similar (you choose to adjust) - more U.S.
    • -to make similar - more France

    U.S. melting point - putting every race into a pot and maknig an American
  138. types of assimilation:
    • acculturation: adoptions of cultural elements (foods the last thing people acculturate)
    • structural assimilation: participation in the institutions of the host society
    • behavioral assimilation: adoption of behaviors
    • identification assimilation: adoption of values, identification w/the host society (hardest one - hard to give up your homeland, to some degree tho, you gotta identify in order to get along)
  139. II. Other Models of Immigration Incorporation
    • -Salad bowl: ethnic difference add flavor (Americans=ice berg, Mexicans=tomatos, etc)
    • -Multiculturalism: the retention of ethnic traits is encouraged and valued (e.g. Canada)
  140. Ethnic landscapes: Urban clusters
    Many ethnic groups form ethnic clusters (like ChinaTown)
  141. What are the functions of urban clusters?
    • Definsive: help reduce discrimination
    • Support: ethnic networks
    • Cultural: preservation of cultural heritage
    • Political(attac): base for social/politcal action
  142. Types of ethnic clutsers
    • Colonies: temporary ports of entry
    • Ethnic enclaves: persisting ethnic clusters, but eventually move
    • Ghettos: ethnic clusters perpetuated by external factors such as discrimination (permanent)

    Ethnic clusters leads to segregation
  143. Segregation causes
    • Social distance is often expressed in physical distance (segregation)
    • Social status (education, income)
    • Household type/stage in the life cycle
    • Lifestyle: e.g. family vs. career oriented
    • Ethnicity/race
  144. Rural ethnic landscapes: The Amish
    • Catholicism-------> Catholics
    • 1517 Reformation--------> Protestants
    • 1525 Anabaptists------------------->Mennonites
  145. Dissatisfaction with the reformation lead to:
    • Anabaptists (which means getting baptized when they are adults and choose to) argue that Christian practices should be solely based on scripture, not on church traditions
    • 1693 Disagreement among Anabaptists about practices such as shunning: split into Mennonites & Amish
    • ~~~~Mennonites dress kind of like Amish (women in dresses, but printed) but don't object technology, also like to speak German and are not segregated from the society
  146. The Amish in America
    • The 18th century: the Amish migrate to the new world to flee persecution in Europe
    • Now there are 1,300 Amish congregations in the 24 US states and Ontario
    • Roughly 180,000 members
    • Amish speak Pennsylvannia Dutch, a German dialect (kind of biblical)
    • ~Most amish are in the mid-west to northeast coast area
  147. Cornerstones of Religious Doctrine of amish
    • Separation from the world, but acceptance of the "English" meaning any kind of Americans/outsiders
    • Obedience to the church's teaching and authority ("Gelassenheit") - bend to rules of church
    • Objection to photography ("Do not make a graven image of thyself") bc believe that they lose a little something
  148. Amish Dress
    • The style of clothing is deteremined by gender, age, marital status, plainness, etc. (very conservative are more plain)
    • -women wear solid colored dresses w/aprons
    • -tie hair in bun (by having hair braided first) and wear a bonnet on top
    • -can't wear buttons=offensive
    • -men wear broadfall trousers w/suspenders, a vest and a hat
    • -beard on men represents marriage
  149. Other characteristics of Amish
    • The amish use different types of carriages
    • -opened/closed buggy -- had to make adjustments w/buggy = reflectors & lights
    • -market wagon
    • The amish live in multi-generation families on farms
    • There's a period of a teens life where they can leave the amish community to discover what's out there for a year to decide what life they want to lead
    • The amish have one room schools staffed by amish teachers
    • The amish consider mutual aid crucial (e.g. barn raising if somebody's burns down or if there's a meidcal condition that amish doctor can't treat, they will get outside help and the community will contribute to pay bill)
  150. Reluctance to changing the "Ordnung"
    • Selective adoption of technology - won't get electricity from city, but use generatot
    • Distinction between use & ownership - won't own a phone, but will use if have access
    • Contradictory behavior (from an outsider's point of view): modern equipment drawn by horses or powered by generators
  151. Amish Internal divisions

    -Amish communities don't agree about:
    • -holding church services in meeting houses (instead it takes place at each other's home - rotating) --- don't attend church
    • -Using cars, telephones and electricity depends on the Amish group
    • -Using modern farm equipment
  152. Similar to Amish are the Hutterites
    • Hutterites migrated from Ukraine to N. America in the lat 19th century
    • Most Hutterites live in community farms in Canadian prarie provinces -- dorm-like and rotate chores, WHEREAS Amish live on family farms **biggest difference in Amish vs. Hutterites
    • Very high fertility rates: community farms have to branch every 20-30 years (averaging 5-6 kids per family) and create new communities
    • Most are in Canaday because when they branch, they want to live close by old communities; in US, don't like that bc the Hutterites don't contribute to US economy bc they only trade internally
    • Simple clothing, speak an old German dialect, but use modern technology
    • Simple
  153. Ethnic Conflict and Genocide

    "Ethnic cleansing": getting rid of a certain race
  154. Nationalism
    • Nationalism: people that give their primary loyalty to their own ethnic group and demand to have an independent stat
    • It can also refer to feeling that:
    • -one's own group is superior to others
    • -one's own group is justified in making territorial demands
  155. Nationalism is likely to lead to conflict when:
    • Ethnic groups are intermingled so that territory cannot easily be partitioned
    • Borders are problematic:
    • -defensibility
    • -legitimacy
    • -ethnic & political borders may not be identical
    • -example: Yugoslavia - some ethnics don't stay within political border lines; Bosnia & Herzegovina is a TOTAL mess
    • The ethnic group wants all members of the group to be part of the state
    • -immigration
    • -annexation
    • The ethnic group discriminates against members of other ethnic groups living in their territory
    • Relationships between the various groups are problematic:
    • -past violence
    • -problematic responses to the past violence
    • (To make up after problem; offer compensation, help build what you've destroyed, admit what you did wrong -- ex. Germany: they have pillars that are made of different heights to gesture memorial for Jews)
  156. Other explanations
    • Difficult political or economic situation
    • Security dilemma
    • Elite manipulation ~ Hitler
  157. Psychological explanations
    • According to the Milgram experiment, people have a psychological predisposition to obey authority
    • --the experiment consisted of an "authority" figure, a person that's being tested=subject and an actor being shocked, but subj doesn't know. everytime actor gets a question wrong he gets shocked with a hight level of electricity, but the authority figure tells subject to keep going.
    • People can be trained to commit violence
    • Dehumanizing victims contributes to violence
    • -Labeling people as cockroaches, worms, diseases, bugs, cancer
  158. ...When it all comes together, it leads to Genocide
    Genocide is defined as acts committed w/the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group = killing them, massive rape

    • Examples of recent genocides:
    • Armenian genocide (1915)
    • Nazi Holocaust (WWII) - 6 mil jews killed, it was the LARGEST
    • Boshia (1990s)
    • Rwanda (1994) - FASTEST genocide, 100 days=1 mil people killed
    • Darfur (2000)
  159. Agriculture - what is it?
    Agriculture is a science, an art, and a business involving the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance(sustain) and profit

    • Its activities cover about 1/3 of the earth's land surface
    • It is a primary concertn of geographers due to their interest in human envt interactions
  160. I. Subsistence Agriculture is to..
    produced only what a family needs

    • 1) Shifting cultivation
    • 2) Intensive subsistence agriculture
    • 3) Pastoralism
  161. 1)Shifting cultivation: move from one plot to another
    • Practiced to maintain soil fertility (retain) by rotating fields in nutrient-poor areas (e.g. tropics areas's soil is poor bc nutrients are all in the plants)
    • Slash-and-burn farming: vegetation is cut, dried and burned > adds nutrients, sterilizes the soild - gets rid of fungi (process is called MILPA in some countries)
    • Extensive; relatively small labor input
    • Usually practiced in societies where villagers hold land in common tenure (growing native plants and using hand tools)
    • Intertillage of different crops:
    • -food security
    • -protects the soil
    • -some plants like shade from taller plants
    • -growing one plant means if it gets a disease it spreads to all of that specie and kills it all = interillage means less chance of losing it all
    • Can only suppport low population densities
  162. 2) Intensive subsistence agriculture
    • Efficient use of a small parcel of land w/heavy labor inputs
    • Can support large rural populations (India, China & SE Asia)
    • Human/animal labor intensive
    • Fields are used every year and enhanced with fertilizers
    • High yield crops such as rice
    • When land is not flat, terraces are created = raised fields
  163. 3) Pastoralism
    • It is the breeding and herding of animals to provide food, shelter and clothing, continuous movement in a route
    • Practiced in savannas, deserts and steppes where agriculture is impracticable
    • Types:
    • -nomadism: continuous movement of herders and families
    • -transhumance: movement of herds according to seasons up & down - in Switzerland, in the winter the cows stay in the barn and fatten up then in the summer go up north to moutains
    • ~People that practice this: Saami - Europe, Mongols - Asia, Masia, Kikuya & Zula - Africa)
  164. First agricultural revolution
    • Development of seed agriculture - probably came from garbage
    • Domestication of plants and animals - example: bananas came from Central America, but is domesticated in southern/southeast asia
    • Development of permanent settlements
  165. Second Agriculutral Revolution
    • Application of fertilizers, making it more productive
    • Replacement of oxen by horses
    • Industrial revolution created large market for agriculutural products
    • Dramatic increase in output
  166. Third Agriculural Revolution **most dominant
    • Combination of home consumption and market production on small and mid-sized farms
    • Improvements of traditional agriculture
    • -mechanization: replacement of human labor w/machines
    • -application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides
    • Industrialization of agricultural practices
    • -agriculture becomes one part in an integrated multilevel production process linking farmers, processors and distributors ("agribusiness") to make PROFIT
    • -huge land areas and high levels of capital investment
    • Agribusiness means... production agriculture,
  167. The Green Revolution
  168. What was the green revolutions main purpose?
    • Attempt to increase agricultural outputs in developing nations --> make strongest,nutrional,bug resistant food; keeping only good traits of food
    • Development of high yield seed varieties ("miracle rice")
    • Irrigation, application of fertilizers and pesticides
  169. Green revolution resulted in?
    Resulted in huge production increases, but also pollution, salinization and water depletion (envt issues)
  170. Green revolution was more successful in?
    Asia than Africa because focused on wheat, rice and corn
  171. Genetically Modified Organisms
    • Ex: Grapple - apples that have been injected w/grape juice
    • US allows GMO & Europe is anti-GMO
    • US is willing to experience with it, making nice looking food/fruits, and it takes longer for food to spoil
    • European usually go shopping for food everday because food spoils faster
    • ----->Africa didn't take US' offer of food because don't like GMO - they'd rather starvet han eat, or maybe Africa gets foods from Europe and since they are anti-GMO, if Africa takes food from US then Europe will stop sending them food?
  172. Natural Resources - what is it? and what are the 3 types?
    It is materials created by physical/natural process and useful to humans

    • 1. renewable resource: materials that can be replenished through natural or human-assisted processes in a reasonably short time (trees/forest)
    • 2. non-renewable : materials that exist in finite (limited) amts and cant be replaced by natural processes in a lifetime (oil/coal)
  173. Fishing (renewable example 1)
    • Fish is used for:
    • -Human consumption (protein source)
    • -Animal feed
    • -Fertilizer
    • 80% of fish is take from oceans, 20% from inland lakes
    • "Tragedy of the commons": oceans are seen as a property nobody is responsible for > exploitation leads to depletion
    • ---in other words, one country wants to keep the fishing low, but if all countries keep fishing out as much as they want then that one country feels they're not obeying and so they do the same also
    • 1976 Coastal Nations claim a 200 mile zone of exclusive economic rights
  174. Forestry (renewable ex. 2)
    • Deforestation has been going on for hundreds of years, but 30% of the land surfaces are still forested
    • Types of forests:
    • Northern forests: construction lumber, paper and other cellulose products
    • Tropical forests: fuel and lumbers for export
    • --ex: Haiti & Dom. Repu. Island - one side of the island is completed deforested that when you fly over it, you can see
  175. Mining & Quarrying (nonrenewable ex 1)
    • Uneven distribution of minerals
    • -amounts
    • -quality
    • Metallic minerals (copper, lead, iron ore) can be enhanced through upgrading processes
    • Non-metallic minerals (sand, gravel) are abundant, but expensive to transport
  176. Pre-industrial power sources (renewable)
    • Animal power: easily portable (human power also)
    • Wind mills: allow to perform simple mechanical functions (grinding, draining land)
    • Water: reliable
  177. Coal .. after preindustrial
    • Uses: home fuel, steam engines, iron smelting
    • Uneven distribution led to regional disparities during the industrial revolution (Diffused from Britain -> France area -> Belgium...etc bc these are areas with good/lots of coal)
    • Quality:
    • -Lignite (brown coal) - inpure, gets a lot of pollution and needs lots of it to get any kind of energy
    • -Black coal - have more energy burnt off from small amt
    • -Anthracite
    • *China still depends on coal 80% and India @ 70%
    • Types of mining:
    • -Open pit/strip mine: for brown coal, take out top layer of land and can grab coal and if it's not too deep - can fill with farmland or water; this causes landscape destruction
    • -Shaft mine: dig a tunnerl underneath land for black coal
  178. Oil after..
    • Major power source since the 1950s
    • Very unevenly distributed: 75% of oil reserves in just 7 countries! --*Middles East has most amt of oil (Saudi Arabia)
    • Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) - is over land, it's flexible avoiding earthquakes and temperature is more maintainable
  179. Natural Gas
    • Highly efficient & environmentally friendly
    • Transportation thru pipelines
    • Types:
    • -Earths' type: burns really hot
    • -Natural: doesnt burn as hot
  180. Nuclear power
    • Some states are highly dependent on nuclear power (France & Belgium)
    • Other states are trying to phase out of nuclear power (Sweden & German); recent reversal of policies in some countries bc nuclear is cleaner and the countries couldn't supply enough for everybody w/o nuclear
    • Enviroment Impact
    • -nuclear waste (no air pollution or water pollution) which is still radioactive so put in old mines for now or pay other countries so can dump waste on their land
    • US has a lot of access to nuclear power
  181. Alternative energy
    • Solar energy - how to solve it over seasons?
    • Hydroelectric power - large dams
    • Wind turbines - high investment coast, kills swarms of birds, needs lots of space, no efficient, noisey, not appealing to eyes; kills swarms of birds & noisiness is solved by putting the turbines off shore instead; *Massively increased over the years, especially in Denmark
    • Geothermal - tapping into volcanic (Blue Laguna - in Iceland)
    • Wave power - by "snakes" to collect energy
    • Tidal power
  182. Environmental Issues
    • ..................................
    • some are caused by people and some happen by itself
  183. Desertification
    • Desertification: expansion of deserts into semi-arid areas
    • Ex: servere in Sahel, Africa
    • Results from a combination of natural (normal climate change) and anthropogenic (people overgrazing areas) factors
    • -overgrazing - removal of all grasses and shrubs
    • -erosion - water runs off rather than seeping in; water table is depleted, plants can no longer reach water, total loss of vegetation --> ex. Mali is inhabitable
  184. The Aral Sea
    • 1960s: Tributaries (Amu Darya and Syr Darya) were diverted to irrigate cotton and rice fields - which require a lot of water
    • Over consumption of water has caused the Aral Sea to shrink dramatically - color change because of it getting shallow, no more islands, salts left behind
    • Salt pollution created health problems
  185. Global Warming
    • Climate change can take place through:
    • -Natural processes: shape of the ellipse, intensity of sun, location of the continents
    • -Human impact: increase in carbon dioxide emssion from the burning of fossil fuels
    • -Long wave heat can no longer be re-radiated into space

    • Consequences of Global warming:
    • -melting of glaciers and ice sheets
    • -rising sea levels
    • -flooding in low countries: the Netherlands, Bangladesh and Atolls
    • -change in precipitation patterns: dry areas will become drier and wet areas will become wetter
    • -more extreme weather conditions
    • -shift of ocean current: possible disappearance of the Gulf Stream