psychology

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Author:
miraclestar3
ID:
42504
Filename:
psychology
Updated:
2010-10-16 22:18:40
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chapter
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Description:
drugs addiction and reward
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  1. Opiates
    drugs derieved form the opium poppy.
  2. Opiates effects are
    • analgesic- pain relieving
    • hypnotic- sleep inducing
    • euphoria- sense of happiness or ecstasy
  3. Morphine
    valuable as a treatment for the pain of surgery, battle wounds, and cancer
  4. heroin
    synthesized from morphine
  5. Opiates have their own :
    Receptors which are normally stimulated by endorphins
  6. Depressants:
    reduce activity in the nervous system
  7. Stimulants
    increase activity in the nervous system
  8. In the study of conditioned tolerance to heroin
    rats tolerated the drug less in a novel environment
  9. withdrawl from alcohol
    can be life threatening
  10. The reason alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines are deadly taken together is that they
    affect the same receptor complex
  11. Psychedelic drugs often produce hallicuations by
    stimulating serotoning receptors
  12. Marijuana was the subject of disagreement among researchers because some of them
    thought it failed to meet the standard test for addictiveness
  13. Evidence that addiction does not depend on the drug's ability to produce withdrawl symptom is that
    • produced in different parts of the brain
    • either can be produced without the other in the lab
  14. when rats trained to press a lever for electrical stimulationof the brain are given a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, lever pressing
    decreases
  15. the best argument that caffeine is an addictive drug like alcohol and nicotine is that
    it affects the same processes in the brain
  16. Evidence that dopemines contribution to addiction may be its effect on learning comes from a study in which
    hippocampal stimulation released dopamine and restored learned lever pressing
  17. Agonist treatments for drug addiction
    mimic the drug's affect
  18. Critics of treating drug addiction with drugs believe that
    • getting over addiction should not be easy
    • its wrong to give an addict another addictive drug
  19. type of alcoholism in which the individual drinks regularly is associated with
    antisocial personality disorder
  20. Alcoholics often
    have reduced serotonin and dopamine functioning
  21. A drug or chemical that imitates or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a (an)
    agonist
  22. Reduced cortical activity is typical of drugs that produce euphoria
    true
  23. A drug or chemical that interferes with or prevents the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a (an)
    antagonist
  24. A decrease in the ability of a drug to produced its desired or intended effect after it is administered repeatedly is
    tolerance
  25. The major psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is THC
    THC
  26. Opiates have what are termed hypnotic effects which means opiates can
    induce sleep
  27. Most Type 2 alcoholics are males
    true
  28. In addition to its
    well-known effects on the GABA receptor, alcohol also affects the
    _________ receptor or neurotransmitter system(s).
    • serotonin
    • glutamate.
    • opiate
    • cannabinoid
  29. Aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiencies occur in approximately 2% of Japanese non-alcoholics and about 50% of Japanese alcoholics
    True
  30. Many of the drugs classified as hallucinogens or psychedelics are chemically similar to neurotransmitters. In particular,
    the LSD molecule is structurally similar to serotonin
  31. GABA is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter
    true
  32. Glutamate is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter
    true
  33. The height of the P300 wave is related to responsiveness to novel stimuli
    true
  34. The benzodiazepine molecules
    facilitate the binding of GABA and increase chloride influx
  35. With chronic alcoholism vitamin B1 deficiency can occur, which can produce Korsakoff's syndrome
    true
  36. Compulsive gamblers are like drug addicts in that both have reduced glutamate activity in prefrontal brain areas
    false
  37. The naturally-occurring agent(s) internal to our nervous system that binds with the cannabinoid receptor
    is anandamide
  38. withdrawal symptoms produced by discontinuing a drug are
    often opposite to the effects of the drug itself
  39. The stimulant caffeine
    blocks receptors for the neuromodulator adenosine.
  40. Nicotine's effects depend upon how it is administered. When smoked in
    short puffs nicotine produces _____ effects; when inhaled deeply it
    produces ________ effects
    • stimulant;
    • depressant
  41. Withdrawal symptoms after repeatedly using cocaine
    typically mild
  42. The drug known as naloxone is a(an)
    opiate antagonist

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