Med Term. Ch. 3

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Gelly
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42512
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Med Term. Ch. 3
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2010-10-16 04:17:22
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Med Terms Chap
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Musculoskeletal System
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  1. They musculoskeletal system consists of 3 interrelated parts:
    bones, joints (articulations), muscles
  2. bones are connected to one another by fibrous bands of tissue called...
    ligaments
  3. muscles are attached to the bones by bands of tissue called...
    tendons
  4. the tough fibrous covering of the muscles (and some nerves and blood vessels) is called...
    fascia
  5. articular _____ covers the ends of many bones and serves as a protective fxn
    cartilage
  6. hematopoiesis
    process of storing of minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous) and the continual formation of blood in the bone marrow
  7. arthr/o, articul/o
    joint
  8. chondr/o
    cartilage
  9. orthopedics
    musculoskeletal disorder specialist
  10. rheumatology
    specialty that deals with disorders of connective tissue, bone and cartilage
  11. physiatry
    concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disease or injury with the use of physical agents
  12. axial skeleton consists of...
    skull, rib cage, and spine
  13. appendicular skeleton consists of...
    shoulder bones, collar bones, pelvic bones, arms and legs
  14. osteocytes
    mature bones
  15. matrix
    area between the cells of a bone (consists of calcium, phosphorous)
  16. osteoblasts
    cells built from bone
  17. osteoclasts
    cells that break down bone cells to transform them as needed
  18. compact bone
    osteocytes + matrix (consists of the hard outer layer of the bone)
  19. spongy or cancellous bone
    second layer of bone within the compact bone
  20. bone marrow
    produces blood cells
  21. diaphysis
    a bone's long shaft
  22. epiphysis
    each end of the bone
  23. epiphyseal
    areas where bone growth normally occurs
  24. metaphysis
    epiphysis and epiphyseal plates meet
  25. periosteum
    outer covering of the bone
  26. endosteum
    inner aspect of the bone
  27. depression
    any groove, opening or hollow space in a bone
  28. processes
    raised or projected areas of a bone
  29. fissure
    fissur/o
    a fairly deep cleft or groove
  30. foramen
    foramin/o
    an opening or hole
  31. fossa
    foss/o
    a hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone
  32. sinus
    sin/o
    cavity/channel lined with a membrane
  33. sulcus
    sulc/o
    groove or depression in an anatomic structure, not as deeps as a fissure
  34. condyle
    condyl/o
    rounded projection at the end of a bone that anchors the ligaments and articulates with adjacent bones
  35. crest epicondyle head
    projection on surface of bone above the chondyle
  36. tubercle
    a nodule or small raised area
  37. tuberosity
    elevation or protuberance, large than tubrcle
  38. the skull is made up of 2 parts:
    cranium and facial bones
  39. frontal bone
    forms anterior part of skull and forehead
  40. parietal bones
    form sides of cranium
  41. occipital
    forms the back of the skull
  42. temporal bones
    form the lower two sides of the cranium
  43. mastoid process
    posterior part of the bone behind he ear
  44. ehthmoid bone
    forms the roof and walls of the nasal cavity
  45. sphenoid bone
    anterior to the temporal bones and the basilar part of the occpital bone
  46. zygoma
    cheekbone
  47. lacrimal bones
    paired bones at the corner of each eye that cradle the tear ducts
  48. maxilla
    upper jaw bone (maxillary bone)
  49. mandible
    lower jaw bone (mandibular bone)
  50. vomer
    bone that forms posterior/anterior part of the nasal septal wall between nostrils
  51. palatine bones
    make up part of the roof of mouth
  52. inferior nasal conchae
    make up part of the interior of the nose
  53. constrochondral
    pertaining to the ribs/cartilage
  54. sternum
    aka breastbone
  55. xiphoid process
    sharp point at the most inferior aspect of sternum
  56. cervical vertebrae
    neck bones c1-c7
  57. thoracic vertebrae
    upper back (t1-t12)
  58. lumbar vertebrae
    lower back (L1-L5)
  59. sacral verebrae
    sacrum (s1-s5)
  60. coccygeal vertebrae
    coccyx (tailbone)
  61. scapula
    shoulder blades (help support arms)
  62. acromion process
    lateral protrusion of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder
  63. clavicle
    collarbone
  64. humerous
    upper arm bone
  65. radius
    lower lateral arm bone parallel to ulna, distal end articulates with the thumb side of hand
  66. ulna
    lower medial arm bone, distal end articulates with little finger side of hand
  67. olecranon process
    funny bone
  68. carpal
    one of eight wrist bones
  69. metacarpal
    one of 5 bones that form the middle part of hand
  70. phalanx
    one of the 14 bones that constitute fingers of the hand
  71. digitus
    refers to whole finger/toe
  72. acetabulum
    socket where femoral head fits
  73. Ilium
    superior and widest bone of pelvis
  74. Ischium
    lower portion of pelvic bone
  75. pubis or pubic bone
    lower anterior part of pelvic bone
  76. femur
    thigh bone, upper leg bone
  77. patella
    kneecap
  78. tibia
    shin bone, lower medial leg bone
  79. fibula
    smaller, lower lateral leg bone
  80. malleolus
    process on distal ends of tibia and fibula
  81. metatarsals
    one of 5 foot bones between tarsals and phalanges
  82. calcaneous
    heel bone
  83. phalanx
    one of 14 bones, 2 in the great tow and 3 in teach of the other four toes
  84. range of motion (ROM)
    range through which a joint can be extended and flexed
  85. no ROM
    synarthroses
    are immoveable joints held together by fibrous cartilaginous tissues (ie suture lines of the skull)
  86. Limited ROM
    amphiarthroses
    joints jointed together by cartilage that are slightly movable (ie vertebrae of the spine or pubic bones)
  87. full ROM
    diarthroses/synovial
    joins that have free movement; ball and socket joints, hinge joints (ie elbows, shoulders, wrists)
  88. bursae
    sacs of fluid located between the bones of the join and the tendons that hold muscles in place
  89. menisci
    crescent-shaped cartilage in the knee joint that additionally cushion the joint
  90. muscle
    tissue that can contract and relax
  91. skeletal muscle
    striated (stripped in appearance) and allows for voluntary movement
  92. smooth muscle
    responsible for involuntary movement
  93. heart muscle
    pumps blood to circulatory system
  94. tendons
    strong fibrous bands of connected tissue used to attached muscles to bones
  95. sternocleidomastoid muscle
    attached sternum, clavicle and mastoid process
  96. extension
    process of stretching out; increasing angle of joint
  97. flexion
    proces of decreasing angle of joint
  98. abduction
    process of carrying away from the midline
  99. adduction
    process of carrying toward the midline
  100. supination
    turning the palm or medial side of the foot downward
  101. pronation
    turning the palm or lateral side of foot downward
  102. dorsiflexion
    process of bending back
  103. plantar flextion
    lowering the foot; pointing toes away from shin
  104. eversion
    process of turning out
  105. inversion
    process of turning in
  106. protraction
    process of pulling forward; the forward movement of muscle
  107. retraction
    process of backward pulling; the backward movement of a muscle
  108. prefix
    syn-
    together, joined
  109. prefix
    re-
    back
  110. prefix
    inter-
    between
  111. prefix
    intra-
    within
  112. endo-, end-
    within
  113. prefix
    dia-
    through, complete
  114. prefix
    amphi-
    both
  115. suffix
    -blast
    embryonic
  116. suffix
    -clast
    breaking down
  117. suffix
    -cyte
    cell
  118. suffix
    -oid
    full of, like
  119. suffix
    -physis
    growth
  120. suffix
    -poiesis
    formation
  121. suffix
    -sis
    condition
  122. suffix
    -um
    structure
  123. suffix
    -plasia
    development
  124. polydactyly
    condition of more than 5 fingers or toes on each hand/foot
  125. spina bifida occulta
    cogenital malformation of the bony spinal canal without involement of psinal cord
  126. osteodynia
    bone pain
  127. osteitis deformans
    misshaped bone resulting from inflammation (Paget disease)
  128. osteomalacia
    softening of the bones
  129. osteomyelitis
    inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
  130. chondormalacia
    softening of the cartilage
  131. costochondritis
    inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
  132. arthorsis
    abnormal condition of a joint
  133. baker cyst
    cyst of synovial fluid in the popliteal area of leg
  134. bursitis
    inflamatio of bursa
  135. bunion
    painful enlargement and inflammation of the first metararsophalangeal joint
  136. crepitus
    crackling sound heard in joints
  137. dorsalgia
    upper back pain
  138. lumbago
    lower back pain
  139. ankylosing spondylitis
    chronic inflammatory disease of idiopathic origin, which causes a fusion of the spine
  140. pathologic fractures
    aka spontaneous fractures (may by caused by underlying factors)
  141. sprain
    traumatic injury to a joint involving the ligaments
  142. strain
    overuse or over stretching of a muscle or tendon
  143. dislocation
    bone completely out of its joint
  144. compartment syndrome
    serious medical condition resulting of swelling within the fascia
  145. malunion
    refers to when a bone does not mend and realign correctly
  146. nonunion
    if no healing takes place
  147. sequestrum
    a piece of bone that does not have a renewed blood supply will die
  148. debridement
    removal of debris
  149. external fixation
    noninvasive stabilization of broken bones in which no opening is made in the skin
  150. internal fixation
    stabilization of broken bones in their correct position, using pins, screws, plates and so on
  151. reduction
    alignment and immobilization of the ends of a broke bone

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