Chapter 6: States of Matter

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dekupar
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42529
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Chapter 6: States of Matter
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2010-10-19 17:13:25
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Gas laws
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Gas Laws; states of matter
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  1. Density
    • the mass of matter divided by its volume
    • greater mass greater density- directly proportional
    • density and volume are inversly proportional
    • D=m/v
  2. Shape
    is it fixed or does it take the shape of the container
  3. Compressiblity
    if we apply pressure, does the volume decrease?
  4. Thermal expansion
    • how much does the volume change when heated?
    • Review table 6:1 on pg 168
  5. Kinetic Molecular Theory
    • Matter is composed of small particles
    • each particle is in constant motion (kinetic energy)
    • particles contain potential energy due to attractions and repulsions between them
    • particles move faster as the temp. increases
    • particles transfer energy during a collision with no net energy change
    • Kinetic energy (KE)= 1/2mv2(m=mass, v=valucity)
  6. Interatomic forces
    • dipole- dipole
    • Van der Waal's Forces
    • Hydrogen Bonding
  7. solids at room temp:
    • 1. are not compressible
    • 2.have regular repeating units
  8. Two types of solids observed
    • 1.crystalline solids- crystal latus structure
    • 2.amorphous solid- no specific shape
  9. Types of Solids
    • 1.ionic solids
    • 2.covalent solids
    • 3.metallic solids
    • 4.molecular solids
  10. The liquid state
    • As a result of the forces that hold a liquid together, several properties are observed
    • 1.viscosity- doesn't want to flow
    • 2.surface tension
    • 3.vapor pressure
    • 4.boiling points
  11. The Gas Laws
    • Sinces gases are highly compressible and will expand when heated interesting relationships exist
    • these relationships between volume (V), pressure (P), temp (T) and moles (N), are referred to as the gas law; (R)= gas law constant
  12. Gas Pressure
    • pressure is defined as force per unit area
    • P=F/A; pressure= force/ area
  13. Units of Pressure
    • 1.Atmosphere
    • 2.Torr or mmHg
    • 3.Inches of Hg
    • 4.lbs/ square inch
    • 5.kilopascals
  14. STP
    standard temp and pressure
  15. Standard Pressure: mm of Hg and torr
    760
  16. Standard Pressure: lbs/in2
    14.7
  17. Standard Pressure: kilopascals
    101.325
  18. Standard Pressure: atmosphere
    1
  19. conversion of standard pressure
    new pressure= old p (new SP/ old SP)
  20. Boyle's Law
    • the volume of a dry gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted upon the gass if the temp remains the same
    • P1V2=P2V1
  21. Charle's Law
    • the volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temp. if the pressure exerted upon the gas remains constant
    • K1V2=K2V1
  22. Combined Gas law
    P1V1T2=P2V2T1
  23. Avogadro's Law
    • equal volumes of gases at the same temp. and pressure contain an equal number of molecules
    • V=Kn
  24. The Ideal Gas Equation
    • the ideal gas is a hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal gas equation
    • PV=nRT
  25. Dalton's Law
    • the total pressure exerted by a mixture of different gases kept at a constant volume and temp. is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture
    • the partial pressure is the pressure each gas would exert if it were confined done under the same temp and volume condition as the mixture
    • *Pt=P1+P2+P3...etc.
  26. Graham's Law
    • the rate of effusion of 2 gases is inversely proportional to the square root of their masses
    • rate a/rate b= square root mass a/ mass b
  27. specific heat
    the amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance 1 celsius
  28. unit used in specific heat
    calories or joules per gram celcius
  29. Specific heat of ice
    0.51 cal/gram degree celcius or 2.1 J/g
  30. Specific heat of water
    1.00 cal/g degree celcius or 4.18 J/g degree celcius
  31. Specific heat of steam
    0.48 cal/g degree celcius or 2.00 J/g degree
  32. Heat fusion
    • the amount of energy required to melt 1 gram of a substance (contstant temperature)
    • for water 80 cal/g
  33. Heat Vaporization
    • the amount of energy required to vaporize 1 gram of a substance at a constant temperature
    • for water 80 cal/g

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