# Chapter 6: States of Matter

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1. Density
• the mass of matter divided by its volume
• greater mass greater density- directly proportional
• density and volume are inversly proportional
• D=m/v
2. Shape
is it fixed or does it take the shape of the container
3. Compressiblity
if we apply pressure, does the volume decrease?
4. Thermal expansion
• how much does the volume change when heated?
• Review table 6:1 on pg 168
5. Kinetic Molecular Theory
• Matter is composed of small particles
• each particle is in constant motion (kinetic energy)
• particles contain potential energy due to attractions and repulsions between them
• particles move faster as the temp. increases
• particles transfer energy during a collision with no net energy change
• Kinetic energy (KE)= 1/2mv2(m=mass, v=valucity)
6. Interatomic forces
• dipole- dipole
• Van der Waal's Forces
• Hydrogen Bonding
7. solids at room temp:
• 1. are not compressible
• 2.have regular repeating units
8. Two types of solids observed
• 1.crystalline solids- crystal latus structure
• 2.amorphous solid- no specific shape
9. Types of Solids
• 1.ionic solids
• 2.covalent solids
• 3.metallic solids
• 4.molecular solids
10. The liquid state
• As a result of the forces that hold a liquid together, several properties are observed
• 1.viscosity- doesn't want to flow
• 2.surface tension
• 3.vapor pressure
• 4.boiling points
11. The Gas Laws
• Sinces gases are highly compressible and will expand when heated interesting relationships exist
• these relationships between volume (V), pressure (P), temp (T) and moles (N), are referred to as the gas law; (R)= gas law constant
12. Gas Pressure
• pressure is defined as force per unit area
• P=F/A; pressure= force/ area
13. Units of Pressure
• 1.Atmosphere
• 2.Torr or mmHg
• 3.Inches of Hg
• 4.lbs/ square inch
• 5.kilopascals
14. STP
standard temp and pressure
15. Standard Pressure: mm of Hg and torr
760
16. Standard Pressure: lbs/in2
14.7
17. Standard Pressure: kilopascals
101.325
18. Standard Pressure: atmosphere
1
19. conversion of standard pressure
new pressure= old p (new SP/ old SP)
20. Boyle's Law
• the volume of a dry gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted upon the gass if the temp remains the same
• P1V2=P2V1
21. Charle's Law
• the volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temp. if the pressure exerted upon the gas remains constant
• K1V2=K2V1
22. Combined Gas law
P1V1T2=P2V2T1
• equal volumes of gases at the same temp. and pressure contain an equal number of molecules
• V=Kn
24. The Ideal Gas Equation
• the ideal gas is a hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal gas equation
• PV=nRT
25. Dalton's Law
• the total pressure exerted by a mixture of different gases kept at a constant volume and temp. is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture
• the partial pressure is the pressure each gas would exert if it were confined done under the same temp and volume condition as the mixture
• *Pt=P1+P2+P3...etc.
26. Graham's Law
• the rate of effusion of 2 gases is inversely proportional to the square root of their masses
• rate a/rate b= square root mass a/ mass b
27. specific heat
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance 1 celsius
28. unit used in specific heat
calories or joules per gram celcius
29. Specific heat of ice
0.51 cal/gram degree celcius or 2.1 J/g
30. Specific heat of water
1.00 cal/g degree celcius or 4.18 J/g degree celcius
31. Specific heat of steam
0.48 cal/g degree celcius or 2.00 J/g degree
32. Heat fusion
• the amount of energy required to melt 1 gram of a substance (contstant temperature)
• for water 80 cal/g
33. Heat Vaporization
• the amount of energy required to vaporize 1 gram of a substance at a constant temperature
• for water 80 cal/g
 Author: dekupar ID: 42529 Card Set: Chapter 6: States of Matter Updated: 2010-10-19 21:13:25 Tags: Gas laws Folders: Description: Gas Laws; states of matter Show Answers: