Chapter 6: States of Matter
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Density
 the mass of matter divided by its volume
 greater mass greater density directly proportional
 density and volume are inversly proportional
 D=m/v

Shape
is it fixed or does it take the shape of the container

Compressiblity
if we apply pressure, does the volume decrease?

Thermal expansion
 how much does the volume change when heated?
 Review table 6:1 on pg 168

Kinetic Molecular Theory
 Matter is composed of small particles
 each particle is in constant motion (kinetic energy)
 particles contain potential energy due to attractions and repulsions between them
 particles move faster as the temp. increases
 particles transfer energy during a collision with no net energy change
 Kinetic energy (KE)= 1/2mv^{2}(m=mass, v=valucity)

Interatomic forces
 dipole dipole
 Van der Waal's Forces
 Hydrogen Bonding

solids at room temp:
 1. are not compressible
 2.have regular repeating units

Two types of solids observed
 1.crystalline solids crystal latus structure
 2.amorphous solid no specific shape

Types of Solids
 1.ionic solids
 2.covalent solids
 3.metallic solids
 4.molecular solids

The liquid state
 As a result of the forces that hold a liquid together, several properties are observed
 1.viscosity doesn't want to flow
 2.surface tension
 3.vapor pressure
 4.boiling points

The Gas Laws
 Sinces gases are highly compressible and will expand when heated interesting relationships exist
 these relationships between volume (V), pressure (P), temp (T) and moles (N), are referred to as the gas law; (R)= gas law constant

Gas Pressure
 pressure is defined as force per unit area
 P=F/A; pressure= force/ area

Units of Pressure
 1.Atmosphere
 2.Torr or mmHg
 3.Inches of Hg
 4.lbs/ square inch
 5.kilopascals

STP
standard temp and pressure

Standard Pressure: mm of Hg and torr
760

Standard Pressure: lbs/in^{2}
14.7

Standard Pressure: kilopascals
101.325

Standard Pressure: atmosphere
1

conversion of standard pressure
new pressure= old p (new SP/ old SP)

Boyle's Law
 the volume of a dry gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted upon the gass if the temp remains the same
 P_{1}V_{2}=P_{2}V_{1}

Charle's Law
 the volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temp. if the pressure exerted upon the gas remains constant
 K_{1}V_{2}=K_{2}V_{1}

Combined Gas law
P_{1}V_{1}T_{2}=P_{2}V_{2}T_{1}

Avogadro's Law
 equal volumes of gases at the same temp. and pressure contain an equal number of molecules
 V=Kn

The Ideal Gas Equation
 the ideal gas is a hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal gas equation
 PV=nRT

Dalton's Law
 the total pressure exerted by a mixture of different gases kept at a constant volume and temp. is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture
 the partial pressure is the pressure each gas would exert if it were confined done under the same temp and volume condition as the mixture
 *P_{t=}P_{1}+P_{2}+P_{3}...etc.

Graham's Law
 the rate of effusion of 2 gases is inversely proportional to the square root of their masses
 rate a/rate b= square root mass a/ mass b

specific heat
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance 1 celsius

unit used in specific heat
calories or joules per gram celcius

Specific heat of ice
0.51 cal/gram degree celcius or 2.1 J/g

Specific heat of water
1.00 cal/g degree celcius or 4.18 J/g degree celcius

Specific heat of steam
0.48 cal/g degree celcius or 2.00 J/g degree

Heat fusion
 the amount of energy required to melt 1 gram of a substance (contstant temperature)
 for water 80 cal/g

Heat Vaporization
 the amount of energy required to vaporize 1 gram of a substance at a constant temperature
 for water 80 cal/g