School Psychology 2

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School Psychology 2
2010-10-16 14:11:46
School Psychology

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  1. What are optional evaluations for a SLD?
    • A. Motor Development (fine and gross motor)
    • B. Vocational Assessment
  2. What are the required evaluation data needed to for a child suspected of having an SLD?
    • A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (1 required)
    • C. Individual achievement (1 required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (1 required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (a comprehensive language screening measure is required. Screening instruments must be established and validated for such use and assess areas of receptive and expressive language)
    • F. Other (required)
    • 1. Learning processes
    • ~visual perception (1 required)
    • ~auditory perception (1 required)
    • 2. Observation
    • 3. areas listed below (one required for each deficit area as determined by intellectual, general achievement and educational performance)
  3. Who should the multidisciplinary team include when evaluating a child suspected of having a SLD?
    child's regular teacher (if child does not have a regular teacher, a regular classroom teacher qualified to teach a child of his or her age) and at least one person qualified to conduct individual diagnostic examinations of children (school psy, speech path, remedial reading teacher, or special education teacher.
  4. What screening information would one obtain for a SLD?
    • A. Required
    • 1. Hearing
    • 2. Vision
    • B. Recommended
    • 1. Formal (group achievment and/or group mental abilities tests)
    • 2. Informal
    • ~Teacher made or criterion-referenced tests
    • ~Work samples
    • ~Observational data in classes and other settings
    • ~Anecdotal records
    • ~Rating scales
    • ~Checklists
    • ~Response to scientific, research-based intervention
  5. What are the possible referral Characteristics of a student with a SLD that you would see intellectually and academically?
    • 1. general coordination poor;awkwardness evident in skipping, climbing, running, walking, jumping, hopping, etc.
    • 2. May fall or stumble frequently or maintain equilibrium by touching tables, chairs, or desks when moving about the room
    • 3. May exhibit difficulty with fine motor coordination tasks
    • 4. May have difficulty differentiating between right and left; may exhibit directional confusion, mirror-writing, reversals, inversions or rotations of letters and/or numerals
  6. What are the possible referral Characteristics of a student with a SLD that you would see in a child's communicative abilities?
    • 1. fails to grasp simple word meanings
    • 2. Comprehends words in isolation but fails to comprehend in connected speech
    • 3. Frequently uses incomplete sentences and has numerous grammatical errors as evidenced by poor use of pronouns and verb tenses
    • 4. Unable to organize and express ideas even when adequate information is provided, relates minor or irrelevant details
    • 5. Cannot give clear and appropriate directions
    • 6. Does not recognize and understand figurative language such as alliteration, similes, metaphors, personification, idioms
    • 7. Uses gestures extensively while talking or in place of speech
    • 8. Cannot predict outcomes, make judgments, draw conclusions or generate alternatives after appropriate discussion
    • 9. Has problems interpreting and/or using vocal pitch, intensity and timing for purposes of communicating subtle distinctions in emotions and intention
    • 10. Asks questions and/or responds to questions inappropriately (especially "wh" and "how" question forms)
    • 11. Has difficulty comprehending and using linguistically complex sentence
    • 12. Has problems acquiring and using grammatical rules and patterns for word and sentence formation
    • 13. Has difficulty interpreting or formulating compound or complex sentences (oral and written), sentence which compare and contrast ideas or show cause-effect relationships
    • 14. Cannot write an organized paragraph using related sentence of varying length and grammatical complexity
  7. What are the possible referral Characteristics of a student with a SLD that you would see in a child's behavior?
    • 1. Hyperactivity, attentional deficits: constant motion, inability to attend to a specific task for a required period of time
    • 2. Emotional lability: easily upset, anxious, low frustration threshold may exhibit rapid change from one mood to another
    • 3. Impulsivity: uninhibited, acts without thinking
    • 4. Distractibility: difficulty in attending to dominate stimuli, may abnormally fixate on unimportant details
    • 5. Perseveration: attention becomes fixed upon a single task, which is repeated over and over
    • 6. May frequently demonstrate an inability to assimilate, store or recall visual and/or auditory stimuli; inability to identify or discriminate between visual and auditory stimuli.
    • 7. May be confused in his/her relationship to the physical environment and become disoriented in a familiar setting such as school, playground and neighborhood
    • 8. May frequently disrupt the classroom, demand attention to an inappropriate degree, speak out of turn or exhibit an inability to control responses
    • 9. May disregard or fail to understand the feelings of others
    • 10. May demonstrate a low tolerance for change, may react inappropriately to stimuli
    • 11. May lack self-sufficiency, seldom initiates appropriate activities, may have limited knowledge or acceptance of age role and may compensate by acting foolish or making fun of others
    • 12. Has difficulty interpreting emotions, attitudes and intentions others communicate through nonverbal aspects of communication (facial expressions and body language)
  8. What are the possible referral Characteristics of a student with a SLD that you would see in arithmetic?
    • 1. Difficulty in analyzing and solving math problems of various complexity (one or multiple step), including those involving probability
    • 2. Difficulty in associating the spoken form with the correct printed material
    • 3. Difficulty in learning the cardinal and ordinal system of counting
    • 4. Difficulty in understanding the meaning of the process sign
    • 5. Difficulty in understanding the arrangement of numbers on a page
    • 6. Inability to follow and remember the sequence of steps used in various mathematical operations
    • 7. Difficulty with concepts of space, time, size, distance, quantity and/or linear measurement
  9. What are the possible referral Characteristics of a student with a SLD that you would see in writing and drawing?
    • 1. Inability to form letters or digits correctly
    • 2. Difficulty in staying on or between the lines
    • 3. Difficulty in judging length and width of letters
    • 4. Difficulty in spatial organization, identification or matching of shapes, an/or rotation or distortion of drawings of geometric designs.
    • 5. Reversal of letters and/or digits
    • 6. Difficulty in discriminating left from right
  10. What are the possible referral characteristics of a student with a SLD in reading?
    • 1. Visual Processing
    • ~ visual discrimination difficulties; confusion of similar letters and words
    • ~ letter and word reversals and inversions
    • ~difficulty in following and retaining visual sequences
    • ~Word substitutions
    • ~Distracted reading; skipping and jumping over words
    • ~Omission of words, phrases and sentences
    • ~Slow recognition of words
    • 2. Auditory Processing
    • ~Difficulty in separating words into their component phonemes and syllables or in blending them into whole words
    • ~Difficulty in spontaneous recall of sounds associated with letters and words
    • ~Disturbances in auditory sequencing
  11. What are the possible referral Characteristics of a student with a SLD that you would see intellectually and academically?
    • A student identified as having a SLD is distinguished by the magnitude and/or severity of his/her presenting characteristics listed below.
    • 1. Intellectual
    • ~appears to possess average or above average intelligence based on standardized intelligence tests but does not perform at expected achievement levels when exposed to conventional teaching strategies
    • 2. Academic (In general)
    • ~Scores indicate inconsistency and great variability b/t expectancy and performance
    • ~Short attention span; unable to concentrate on any one task for very long
    • ~Easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli
    • ~Disorganized in the use of books and materials
    • ~Unable to follow and understand class discussion; appears to be inattentive or daydreaming
    • ~Difficulty understanding meaning of time and fails to comprehend the requirements of completing assignments within a certain time frame
  12. What is the definition of a learning disability?
    a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processing involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.