Vaccines and Infections Ch. 36/38

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wiscflor
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Vaccines and Infections Ch. 36/38
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2010-10-16 15:10:20
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  1. What does polio do to the body?

    How does it enter into the body?
    Infects gray matter of the spinal cord

    Through the mouth - direct contact
  2. Varicella:

    Transmission

    Incubation period

    Peak months
    Aerosolized droplets from nasopharyngeal secretions or direct contact with vesicle fluid from skin lesions

    10-21 days

    March, April, May
  3. Varicella:

    S/S

    When vaccine is given

    What if child has not had it before starting school
    Fever, abdominal pain, blisters

    12-15 months

    Child has to get 2nd vaccine between 4-6 years or they will not be allowed into school
  4. Diphtheria:

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Respiratory secretions

    Antibiotics
  5. Tetanus:

    From what exotoxin

    Transmission
    Clostridium tetani

    Enters body after tissue injury
  6. Tetanus:

    What vaccination

    At what ages is the vaccine scheduled

    How many times must child be vaccinated
    DTaP

    2,4,6 months

    Every 10 years
  7. Pertussis:

    What is it

    Transmission
    Acute communicable infection of the respiratory tract

    Direct contact with respiratory secretions
  8. What does DTaP prevent?
    • Diphtheria
    • Tetanus
    • Pertussis
  9. Measles:

    Transmission/Spread

    Complications
    Direct and indirect respiratory secretions

    Pneumonia, seizures, hemorrhage, encephalitis, death
  10. Mumps:

    Transmission/Spread

    Complications

    S/S
    Droplets and direct contact from infected person

    Sterility, deafness, myocarditis

    Parotid swelling and tenderness
  11. Rubella:

    Transmission/Spread

    Found in

    Complications
    Direct contact with infected person

    Respiratory secretions, blood, stool, urine

    Rare but can cause birth defects in fetus
  12. What ages is the MMR vaccine given?
    • 12-15 months
    • 4-6 years

    **Do not give to immunocompromised patients because it is a live vaccine
  13. What do each of these combination vaccines consist of:

    Pentacel
    Pediarix
    Twinrix

    When should they be given by?
    Pentacel - DTaP, IPV, HiB (before age 5)

    Pediarix - DTaP, IPV, Hep B (before age 7)

    Twinrix - Hep A & B (use only in ages 18+)
  14. Vaccine for pneumococcal disease will help prevent:
    • OM
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
    • Septicemia
  15. Meningococcal Meningitis:

    What does is do to the body

    Emergency

    S/S
    Inflammation of tissues around the brain and spinal column

    Death can occur within hours

    Fever, headache, stiff neck
  16. What are the two main signs for meningitis?
    Brudzinski - while child is supine, if the neck is flexed forward then the knees bend involuntarily

    Kernig - while child is supine, cannot bend the hip to bring the leg to 90 degrees
  17. If other children are suspected to have been exposed to a child with meningitis, what are the protocols?
    Preschoolers will take Rifampi and Ceftriaxone within 7 days
  18. Meningitis Vaccine:

    What provides longer protection

    When should it be given
    MCV4 or Menactra T (compared to Menomune)

    Ages 11-12 (also mandatory in Florida colleges if living in dorms)
  19. What virus is the most common cause of diarrhea in young children?
    Rotavirus
  20. What is the most common STI?
    Human papillomavirus
  21. What contraindications are there for vaccines?
    • Very few
    • Only if the child is critically ill

    ***Precaution is not a contraindication

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