Hematologic/Oncology Ch 49

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wiscflor
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42574
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Hematologic/Oncology Ch 49
Updated:
2010-10-16 17:10:40
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H49
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  1. Aplastic Anemia:

    Cause

    External causes
    • Absent/abnormal stem cell production
    • Decreases in RBC, WBC and platelets

    • Idiopathic (50%)
    • Drugs/toxins
    • Radiation
  2. Aplastic Anemia:

    Consequences of decreased RBC, WBC and platelets?

    What's going on with the spleen?
    RBC - pale, weak

    WBC - infection, mouth sores

    Platelets - bruising

    No enlarged spleen compared to iron deficiency anemia (key difference)
  3. Aplastic Anemia:

    Tx
    Meds
    Prognosis
    Remove drugs/toxins

    • Non-HCT - methylprednisolone, ATG, cyclosporine
    • HCT

    High risk of late malignancies, AML and MDS
  4. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura:

    Cause

    Associated with a history of

    S/S
    • Excessive destruction of circulating platelets
    • (less than 100,000)

    Viral infection within 2-4 weeks

    • Bruises in a healthy looking child
    • (be careful in assuming child abuse)
  5. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura:

    Tx
    Prognosis
    • No therapy just use safety precautions if platelets are above 30,000
    • Steroids if below 30,000
    • IgG if below 10,000

    95% resolve by 6 months
  6. When both parents have the sickle cell disease trait what are the chances of:

    A healthy child
    Trait carriers
    Having the disease
    • 1:4 health
    • 2:4 carriers
    • 1:4 disease
  7. Sickle Cell Disease:

    Correlated to environments with
    Immune to
    Cause
    High incidence of malaria

    Malaria

    Abnormal hemoglobin that is deoxygenated
  8. Sickle Cell Disease:

    Complications

    Emergencies
    Vaso-occlusive crisis, sequestration, aplasia

    CVA, acute chest syndrome, priapism
  9. What is leukemia?
    Immature WBC that crowd normal cells
  10. Childhood leukemia:

    Type
    Age peak
    % leukemia
    % cancer
    ALL - 2-4years - 75% - 25%

    AML - neonate/teen - 20% - 5%

    CML - none - 5% - 1%
  11. Leukemia:

    WBC
    Platelets
    Hemoglobin

    Dx from labs?
    WBC - any range

    Plt - decrease

    Hgb - decrease

    Typically can NOT dx from labs
  12. What is the most common type of ALL?
    Precursor B Cell
  13. What is the most common primary malignant renal tumor?
    Wilms Tumor
  14. Wilms Tumor:

    S/S
    • Nontender, firm fragile gelatinous capsule
    • Abdominal pain
    • Vomiting
    • Hypertension
  15. Wilms Tumor:

    Tx
    • Nephrectomy
    • Chemo
    • Radiation
  16. Wilms Tumor:

    Prognosis

    Recurrence
    90%

    50%
  17. Retinoblastoma:

    Favored sex or race?
    90% are diagnosed by age?
    No

    5 years
  18. Retinoblastoma:

    Tx
    Prognosis
    • Laser cryotherapy
    • Chemo
    • Radiation

    • 90%
    • (most deaths are from secondary malignancies)

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