into to computing

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into to computing
2010-10-16 19:39:04
alice programming

intro to computing
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  1. What is a computer?
    A computer is a device that follows instructions for manipulating and storing data.
  2. what is a computer program?
    a computer program is a set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task.
  3. what is an algorithm?
    An algorithm is a set of well-defined logical steps that must be taken in order to perform a task.
  4. what is a machine language?
    machine language is binary code. 10010010101001010111010010 for example.
  5. what is a programming language?
    a programming language uses words instead of numbers to represent instructions.
  6. what kind of software do programmers use to translate English into machine language?
    they use compilers and interpreters.
  7. When writing a program, the most often made mistakes are the ones that include spelling errors and punctuation errors. what are these errors called?
    syntax errors.
  8. what are properties in Alice?
    properties are values that specify the objects characteristics.
  9. what is a method?
    a method is a set of programming statements that an object can execute.
  10. what is a class?
    a class is simply a description of a particular type of object, written in programming statements.
  11. what is another way to refer to an object in programming?
    another way to refer to an object in programming is an "instance of a class."
  12. what is a bounding box?
    a bounding box indicates that an object is selected.
  13. what is dot notation?
    dot notation is a way of organizing the name of an object in such a way as to present different information about that object. example " first method"
  14. what is a primitive method?
    primitive methods are those methods that are given to all objects.
  15. What is an argument?
    An argument is any piece of information that a method requires in order for it to execute.
  16. when you call a method and provide any necessary arguments, it is called ______.
    Passing the arguments.
  17. what is a custom method?
    A custom method is a method that only objects of a specific class have.
  18. names are also known as ______ because they identify various items in a program.
  19. when do you use camelCase and PascalCase?
    • camelCase is a naming convention used for object and method names.
    • PascalCase is a naming convention used for class names.
  20. what is the programming cycle?
    • the programming cycle is
    • 1. Design the program
    • 2. Write the methods
    • 3. Test the methods
    • 4. Debug the methods
  21. what is a programming statement?
    A programming statement describes the objects that are to appear in the world and the actions that are to take place.
  22. what is pseudocode?
    Pseudocode is a way of writing the steps of an algorithm in English.
  23. what is done in the debugging process?
    the debugging process is when you determine how the methods must be corrected or modified in order for the world to meet the specified requirements.
  24. what is a logical error?
    a logical error also known as a bug, is a mistake that does not prevent the program from running, but causes it to produce incorrect results.
  25. How do programers leave notes inside the program and why?
    A programmer leaves "comments" inside the program so that others can understand what and why certain codes are there and what they are supposed to do.
  26. What is a do together structure?
    A "do together" structure allows multiple methods or functions to be executed at the same time.
  27. what is a do in order structure?
    A"do in order" structure is sometimes required to make multiple methods or functions to execute in chronological order.
  28. What is a variable?
    A variable is a storage location that is represented by a name.
  29. what is a local variable?
    a local variable belongs to a specific method.
  30. what is a parameter variable used for?
    A parameter variable is used to hold an argument that is passed to a method when the method is called.
  31. What is a class-level variable?
    a class-level variable is like a property that belongs to a specific object.
  32. What is a world-level variable?
    a world-level variable is like a property that belongs to the world.
  33. Programmers use the term ________ to describe a statement that creates a variable.
    variable declaration.
  34. What three things must you specify when creating a new variable?
    Name, type, and value.
  35. What is a function?
    A function is a special type of method that returns a value back to the instruction that called the function.
  36. What is a math operator?
    A programmers tools for performing calculations are math operators such as "+ - / *"
  37. The values on the right and left side of the operator are called _______.
  38. What is a string?
    A string is a sequence of characters.
  39. When putting two different strings together, this is called "________."
    String Concatenation
  40. Algorithms and programs commonly use Boolean values, which are either ____ or _____"
    True, False.
  41. How many variables can a boolean variable hold?
    two, true and false.
  42. What does an if/else decision structure do?
    An if/else decision structure executes one set of instructions if a boolean condition is true, or a different set of instructions if the boolean condition is false.
  43. What is a sequence structure?
    A sequence structure is when the instructions are executed in sequence, without branching off in another direction.
  44. and if/else structure is also called a "______"
    Decision structure.
  45. How is a decision structure represented on a flowchart?
    It is represented by a diamond shape.
  46. what is it called when an if/else structure is inserted into another if/else structure?
    It is said to be nested.
  47. What are relationship operators used for?
    They are used to compare values and determine whether relationships such as greater than, less than, or equal to exist.
  48. What is a loop?
    A loop is an instruction that causes one or more other instructions to repeat a certain number of times.
  49. When creating a loop, what kind of structure do you create?
    You create a repetition structure.
  50. How can you specify the number of repetitions in a loop?
    you can use a variable or a function call. `
  51. A loop that tests its condition before it performs a repetition is called a "______."
    pretest loop
  52. A type of pretest loop is called a ______?
    while loop