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2010-10-16 19:36:11
Medical Terminology terms

Medical Terminology terms week 6
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  1. GI functions
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • elimination of waste
  2. pharyng/o
  3. esophag/o
  4. gastr/o
  5. enter/o
    small intestine
  6. col/o
  7. hepat/o
  8. cholecyst/o
    gall bladder
  9. gall bladder function
    stores bile for fat breakdown
  10. pancreat/o
  11. pancreas function
    produces digestive enzymes
  12. mastication
  13. salivary glands
    produce fluid and enzymes
  14. deglutition
    swallowing a bolus of food
  15. peristalsis
    involuntary muscle contraction to move food down along GI tract
  16. nausea
    feeling like you're about to vomit
  17. emesis
  18. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  19. coffee ground emesis
    vomiting digested blood
  20. cardiac sphincter
    sphincter between esophagus and stomach
  21. pyloric sphincter
    sphincter between stomach and duodenum
  22. areas of stomach
    • cardia
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
  23. parts of small intestine
    • duodenum (10 in)
    • jejunum (8 ft)
    • ileum (11 ft)
    • total = 20-23 ft
  24. parts of colon
    • appendix
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
  25. ileocecal valve
    between ileum and colon
  26. hepatic flexure
    turn between ascending and transverse colon
  27. splenic flexure
    turn between transverse and descending colon
  28. pyloric stenosis
    narrowing of the pylorus
  29. pyloroplasty
    surgical widening of the pylorus
  30. ulcers
    sores on inside or outside of body
  31. gastric/peptic ulcers
    • ulcers in the stomach
    • caused by infection of H. pylori
  32. GERD
    • gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • stomach acid getting into the esophagus
    • if untreated, develops into Barrett's esophagus
  33. Barrett's esophagus
    • changes in lining of the esophagus
    • leads to cancer in 1% of cases
  34. hepatitis
    • inflammation of the liver
    • viral or due to alcoholism
  35. hepatomegaly
    • enlargement of the liver
    • most commonly due to mononucleosis
  36. cholecystectomy
    • surgical removal of the gall bladder
    • usually due to gall stones
  37. choleliths
    gall stones
  38. cholelithiasis
    condition of having gall stones
  39. hernia
    bulging of body contents out of normal location
  40. hiatal hernia
    bulging of stomach up through diaphragm into thoracic cavity
  41. inguinal hernia
    bulging of intestine into groin
  42. umbilical hernia
    • bulging of intestine into umbilicus
    • only occurs in newborns
  43. pancreatitis
    • inflammation of the pancreas
    • leads to break down of pancreatic tissue
    • commonly due to alcoholism
  44. diverticula
    out-pocketings of the colon
  45. diverticulosis
    having diverticula
  46. diverticulitis
    inflammation of diverticula
  47. appendicitis
    • inflammation of the appendix
    • requires an appendectomy
  48. volvulus
    • twisting of intestine on itself
    • doesn't allow food through
    • requires surgery
  49. hemorrhoids
    • varicose veins in the rectum
    • caused by lack of fiber
  50. esophageal varices
    • varicose veins in the esophagus
    • common in alcoholism
  51. cirrhosis of liver
    hardening of liver tissue
  52. hematochezia
    bright red blood in stool
  53. melena
    black stool due to digested blood
  54. polyps
    • growths in colon
    • sessile or pedunculated
    • 15% are malignant
  55. sessile polyps
    bulging polyps
  56. pedunculated polyps
    tree shaped polyps
  57. anastromosis
    • surgical joining of two tubular structures
    • end to end or side to side
  58. colonoscopy
    procedure where a fiberoptic tube is used to visualiza the inside of the colon
  59. endoscopy/gastroscopy
    procedure where a fiberoptic tube is placed through mouth, stomach, into small intestine to visualize
  60. barium / barium sulfate
    used as a radiopaque contrast medium for gastrointestinal x-rays
  61. upper GI series
    x-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine using a barium swallow
  62. lower GI series
    x-rays of the colon and rectum using a barium enema