Volume 1 Chapter 2
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. What would you like to do?
What are the basic elements of physical fitness?
Cardiovascular endurance, Strength/flexibility, Nutrition, Freedom from bad habits, Back safety
What is an isometric exercise?
Active excercise performed against stable resistance where muscles are exercised in a MOTIONLESS manner
What is an isotonic exercise?
Active exercise during which muscles are worked through their range of MOTION
How do you find target heart rate?
Subtrace age from 220 (max heart rate). Subtract resting rate from maximum heart rate x 0.7. Add to resting heart rate.
What are the My Pyramid health guidelines?
Physical activity (30 minutes), Whole grains (3 ounces), Fruits (2 cups), Vegetables (2.5 cups), Fats, Milk (3 cups), Meat and beans.
Any disease caused by the growth of pathogenic microorganisms which may be spread from person to person.
Microorganism capable of producing disease, such as bacteria and viruses.
Time between contact with a disease and the first appearance of symptoms.
A strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and fluids are infectious.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Equipment used by EMS personnel to protect against injury, illness and the spread of infection.
How are some diseases spread?
- AIDS/HIV- Blood, reproductive fluid
- Hep B,C - Blood, Stool, other body fluid
- Tuberculosis (TB)- Airborne, respiratory secretions
- Meningitis- Oral and nasal secretions
- Pneumonia- Oral and nasal secretions
- Influenza- Airborne, body fluids
- Staphylococcal infection- Contact with open wounds/sores
- Chicken pox (Varicella)- Airborne, open wounds/sores
- German measles (Rubella)- Airborne
- Whooping cough (Pertussis)-Airborne, Respiratory secretions
- SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)- Airborne, personal contact
When should a gown be worn?
Large amounts of bleeding such as arterial bleeds or childbirth
What are the definitions of Cleaning, Disinfecting and Sterilizing?
- Cleaning- Washing an object with soap and water. Hands are cleaned.
- Disinfecting- Cleaning with a disinfecting agent which kills most microorganisms.
- Sterilizing- Use of chemical or physical method such as pressurized steam to kill all microorganisms.
What are the post-exposure procedures?
- 1. Wash effected area with soap and water
- 2. Get medical evaluation
- 3. Take immunization boosters
- 4. Notify agency's infection control liason
- 5. Document
Any occurence of blood or body fluids coming in contact with nonintact skin, mucous membranes or parenteral contact (needle stick).
What are the five stages of grieving?
- Denial "Not me"
- Anger "Why me?"
- Bargaining "OK, but first i have to.."
- Depression "But i haven't had a chance to..."
- Acceptance "OK, i'm ready."
How do different age groups react to death and dying? How should they be handled?
- Newborn to 3- Senses change in family or people. Watch for irritability. Be sensitive, maintain consistency
- Ages 3 to 6- Believes death is temporary. Watch for behavior changes. Emphasize that it was not their fault, Reinforce that crying is natural.
- Ages 6 to 9- May prefer to hide or disguise feelings to avoid looking "childish". Discuss normal feelings surrounding grief.
- Ages 9 to 12- Starts to understand irreversibility of death. Set aside time to talk about feelings. Encourage sharing of memories.
- Ages 12 to 18- Demanding developmental processes are awkward with the needs of the family. Encourge talking but respect their privacy. Locate a support group/friends.
What are some good things to say to people who have lost someone and are grieving?
- -A loved on has died. (Use specific and clear language)
- -There is nothing more anyone could have done.
- -We are available to assist you if you need it.
- -Give information of the process. (i.e. Medical examiner, funeral home)
Stress and Stressor
- Stress: a hardship or strain. A physical or emotional response to a stimulus.
- Stressor: stimulus that causes stress.
How does someone adapt to stress?
- Defensive strategies: These are helpful for short times. However they deny and distort the reality.
- Coping: A person confronts the situation but just learns to live with it. Not always the best way.
- Problem-solving skills: Healthiest approach. Analysis, solutions to the problem.
How should you manage stress?
- 1. Identify personal stressors
- 2. Find the amount of stress you can take before it is a problem
- 3. Develop stress management strategies
What are the phases of a stress response?
- 1. Alarm- Fight or flight
- 2. Resistance- Individual copes with stress
- 3. Exhaustion- Stress starts to cause problems
Physiological phenomena that occur approximately ever 24 hours. They manage the bodies sleep cycle, temperature and other autonomic functions.
Set hours when a night-shift worker can reliably expect to get sleep with no interruption.
When coping mechanisms no longer buffer job stressors. Compomises health and well-being.
How to deal with a stressful situation?
Controlled breathing, Reframe, Attend to the patient
What are the three main types of EMS stress?
- 1. Daily Stress- Pay, working conditions, long hours, etc.
- 2. Small Incidents- One or two patients with injuries or death. Incidents involving friends/co-workers.
- 3. Large Incidents/Disasters- Many patients, some critical or dead.
What is the main cause of injuries in EMS?
What would you like to do?
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