microbiology people

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microbiology people
2010-10-22 00:37:03
microbiology chapter

famous people in microbiology
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  1. • First to realize that microorganisms areinvolved in causing diseases.
    Girolamo Fracastoro (1546)
  2. • Dutch eyeglass maker made the firstcrude microscope.
    • Zacharias Janssen (1580-1638)
  3. • A Dutch linen draper who obtained magnifications of (50-3000) and first observed bacteria and divided them into:Cocci (round) Bacilli (rods) Spirilla (spiral)
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  4. a physician, chemist,and physicist wrote recipes on how to generatemice from soiled undergarments.
    Van Helmont (1577-1644)
  5. boiled a variety ofliquids previously sealed showing no growth occurred.
    • Lazzaro Spalanzani (1729-1799)
  6. poured boiled broth into containers and when
    microorganisms grew, heconcluded that microbes can be originated fromboiled broth as well.
    • John Neeedhan,
  7. • English physicist and mathematician made the first detailed-observations of plant tissues and discovered cells, thus the introduction of the cell theory.
    Robert Hook (1635-1703)
  8. Many people believed mice, toads, flies andmaggots could be generated from manure. Somebelieved mice were also generated from hay. this was called
    spontanous generation
  9. was the first to challenge anddisprove spontaneous generation.
    Francesco Redi (1626-1698)• Red
  10. ________ also performed experimentssimilar to those performed by FrancescoRedi.
  11. Disproved spontaneous generation by boiling nutrient solution in swannecked flasks and showing no growth of microbes.
    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  12. Demonstrated that microorganisms are killed by heat.
    Louis Pasteur
  13. • Introduced pasteurization process.
    Louis Pasteur
  14. • Discovered role of yeast infermentation.•
    Louis Pasteur
  15. Developed immunization process andthe vaccines for anthrax and rabies.
    Louis Pasteur
  16. Developed immunization process andthe vaccines for anthrax and rabies.
    Louis Pasteur
  17. • Explained that vaccines work by loss of virulence (1880).
    Louis Pasteur
  18. __________ and ___________and others obtained similar results to those of Pasteur.
    Schultze & Schwann
  19. Introduced aseptic techniques in surgery.
    • Joseph Lister
  20. • Applied germ theory to medical procedures.
    • Joseph Lister
  21. • Used disinfectants to treat surgical wounds.
    • Joseph Lister
  22. ________ and ____________• Discovered the female anopheles mosquitoe stransmit Plasmodium, the parasite that causes ________.
    • Ross & Grassi
    • malaria.
  23. discovered penicillin.
    Alexander Fleming
  24. Chain, Florey (1940)• Ernest Chain & Howard Florey purified __________
  25. • Discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Vibrio cholerae.
  26. Isolated Bacillus anthracis, and in 187 6reported anthrax could be transmitted from animal to animal.
  27. Developed the idea of pure cultures .
  28. _______ ____________ (rules used to determine etiologic agent of a disease).
    Koch’s postulates
  29. 4 kochs postulates
    • 1. Etiologic agent must be present in all infected patients with same symptoms.
    • 2 Etiologic agent must be isolated in a pure culture.
    • 3 Reproduce the disease in an experimental animal.
    • 4 Re-isolate etiologic agent from the experimental animal.
  30. • The organisms may not be present when symptoms show up is a limitation to _______ ________. and is an example that organisms may not be........
    • koch post.
    • present when symptoms appear
  31. The organisms may not be present when symptoms show up for example _________ _________
    • Staphylococcus aureus → food poisoning.• Clostridium botulinum → food poisoning.
  32. leprosy and gonorrhea is an example that Some diseases can’t be reproduced in experimental __________.•
    Neisseria gonorrhoeal → gonorrhea•
    Mycobocterium leprae → leprosy

    this is a limit to kochs post.
  33. Some organisms cannot be grown in _____• Treponema pallidum → syphilis
    • Mycobocterium leprae → leprosy

    this is an example of-------
  34. Some microorganisms are obligate intracellular parasites and cannot be cultured on _______ _________
    example :• Rickettia rickettsie→ Rocky mountain, Chlamydia trachomatis → Trachoma
    artificial media.
  35. thanks to biology today we can : identify ______ diseases in a few minutes and have _________ to treatt them.
    • microbial
    • antiobotics
  36. Specific _______ are used to target antigens and cancer cells.
  37. The possible use of immunotherapy in the treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis through ________ therapy
  38. ___________ resistant plants have been developed, and elimination of some agricultural ______ is possible.
    • Drought
    • pests
  39. In 1910 __________ was the first to use salvarsan (arsenic derivative) to treat syphilis.
    Paul Ehrlich
  40. In 1928 ____________ Scottish bacteriologist, discovered penicillin, (the first antibiotic discovered).
    Alexander Fleming
  41. •_________ _________ is used to produce therapeutic materials such as insulin,human growth hormone and interferon.
    Genetic engineering
  42. • Microbes play key roles in:
    • Nitrogen fixation.
    • Recycling of materials.
    • Sewage treatment.
    Bio-degradation of chemical pesticides, and petroleum products.
    In Ecology
  43. • In Agriculture importance
  44. Fixation of Nitrogen (Rhizobium) in soybeans, alfalfa,clover, peas.
    • Pest resistant plants, desert plants.
    • Engineered beans, tomatoes,…plants.
  45. • To make products such as acetone,organic acids, enzymes, alcohol, drugs. is an example of how biology is used in the _________
  46. • Cheeses, yogurt, buttermilk, sauerkraut,pickles, alcoholic beverages and soy sauce are made using microorganisms.

    this is an example of how microbiology is used in the
    industrial settings
  47. •________ inoculated an 8 year old boy with cowpox to test a milkmaid’s observation that if you getc owpox you don’t get small pox.

    this was the first ________
    • jenner
    • live vaccine used
  48. The 8 year old became immune to small pox, thus the first live vaccine was introduced. The process was called ___________ (latin vacca = ____)
    • vacination
    • cow
  49. Vaccines can be prepared using:
    • ___________
    • Live organisms
    • Killed organisms
    • _______ vaccines.
    • Attenuation
    • engineered
  50. what are antibiotics