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2010-10-17 00:36:03
elements compounds mixtures

Elements, compounds and mixtures
Show Answers:

  1. What is an element?
    • a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
    • There are 109 elements
  2. What is an atom?
    Smallest particle of an element
  3. What is a molecule?
    • The smallest particle of substance that can exist by itself and has all the properties of that substance.
    • Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and chlorine molecules are made of 2 atoms each.
  4. What is a compound?
    • Made up of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined.
    • The elements lose their individual identities when they are joined. The compound has new different properties.
  5. What is a mixture?
    A combination of 2 or more substances that keep their own properties.
  6. What are the common compounds?
    acids, bases, salts and oxides
  7. acid
    • contains hydrogen ions (H+)
    • usually has a sour taste
  8. examples of acids
    vinegar and lemon juice
  9. common acids
    • sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
    • nitric acid (HNO3)
    • carbonic acid (H2CO3)
    • acetic acid (HC2H3O2)
  10. Sulfuric acid
    • H2SO4
    • used in medicines, alcohol, dyes, and car batteries
  11. nitric acid
    • HNO3
    • used in fertilizers, explosives, and cleaning materials
  12. carbonic acid
    • H2CO3
    • used in soft drinks
  13. acetic acid
    • HC2H3O2
    • used in making plastics, rubber, photographic film, and as a solvent
  14. Bases
    • contain hydroxyl ions (OH-)
    • bitter taste and stronger ones feel slipper
  15. example of Bases
    household cleaning products
  16. common bases
    • sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
    • ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
    • potassium hydroxide (KOH)
    • calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2)
  17. Sodium Hydroxide
    • NaOH
    • used in making soap, paper, vegetable oils and refining petroleum
  18. Ammonium Hydroxide
    • NH4OH
    • making deodorants, bleaching compounds and cleaning compounds
  19. Potassium Hydroxide
    • KOH
    • making soaps, drugs, dyes, alkaline batteries and purifying industrial gasses
  20. Calcium Hydroxide
    • Ca(OH)2
    • making cement and plaster
  21. What is an indicator
    a substance that changes color when it comes into contact with a base or acid
  22. Litmus Paper
    • blue litmus paper turns red in an acid
    • red litmus paper turns blue in a base
  23. How is salt formed?
    When an acid and a base combine chemically.
  24. Oxides
    • formed when oxygen combines with another element
    • ex: rust forms when oxygen combines with iron
  25. Chemical Reactions
    • 1 or more substances are formed
    • energy is released during reaction
  26. Chemical Equalibrium
    when the quantities of reactants and products are at a steady state