Card Set Information
elements compounds mixtures
Elements, compounds and mixtures
What is an element?
a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
There are 109 elements
What is an atom?
Smallest particle of an element
What is a molecule?
The smallest particle of substance that can exist by itself and has all the properties of that substance.
Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and chlorine molecules are made of 2 atoms each.
What is a compound?
Made up of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined.
The elements lose their individual identities when they are joined. The compound has new different properties.
What is a mixture?
A combination of 2 or more substances that keep their own properties.
What are the common compounds?
acids, bases, salts and oxides
contains hydrogen ions (H+)
usually has a sour taste
examples of acids
vinegar and lemon juice
sulfuric acid (H
nitric acid (HNO
carbonic acid (H
acetic acid (HC
used in medicines, alcohol, dyes, and car batteries
used in fertilizers, explosives, and cleaning materials
used in soft drinks
used in making plastics, rubber, photographic film, and as a solvent
contain hydroxyl ions (OH-)
bitter taste and stronger ones feel slipper
example of Bases
household cleaning products
sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
ammonium hydroxide (NH
potassium hydroxide (KOH)
calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)
used in making soap, paper, vegetable oils and refining petroleum
making deodorants, bleaching compounds and cleaning compounds
making soaps, drugs, dyes, alkaline batteries and purifying industrial gasses
making cement and plaster
What is an indicator
a substance that changes color when it comes into contact with a base or acid
blue litmus paper turns red in an acid
red litmus paper turns blue in a base
How is salt formed?
When an acid and a base combine chemically.
formed when oxygen combines with another element
: rust forms when oxygen combines with iron
1 or more substances are formed
energy is released during reaction
when the quantities of reactants and products are at a steady state