Social Psychology

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atxmelinda
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42644
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Social Psychology
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2010-10-16 23:05:17
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social exam
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Chapter 6
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  1. Social Perception
    A general term for the processes by which people come to understand one another
  2. nonverbal behavior
    behavior that reveals a person's feelings without words, through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues
  3. Mind perception
    the process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people
  4. Attribution Theory
    a group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior
  5. Personal Attribution
    Attribution to internal characteristics of an actor
  6. situational attribution
    attributions to factors external to an actor
  7. Covariation principle
    A principle of att. theory that holds that ppl attribute behavior to factors that are present when a behavior occurs and are absent when it does not
  8. Avaiability heuristic
    tendency to estimate the liklihood that an evnt will occur by how easily of it comes to mind
  9. false-consensus effect
    tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributions, and behaviors
  10. base-rate fallacy
    the finding that people relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in the form of numerical base rates
  11. counterfactual thinking
    the tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occured but did not
  12. fundamental attribution error
    tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people's behavior
  13. belief in just a world
    the belief that individual get what they deserve in life
  14. impression formation
    process of integrating info about a person to form a coherent impression
  15. information integration theory
    • impressions are based on
    • 1. perceiver dispositions
    • 2. a weighted average of a target's trait
  16. priming
    the tendency for recently used or perceived words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new info
  17. implicit personality theory
    network of assumption ppl make about the relationships among traits and behavior
  18. central traits
    traits that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions
  19. primary effect
    the tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on impressions than info presented later
  20. need for closure
    desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty, which heightens the importance of first impression
  21. confirmation bias
    tendency to seek, interpret, and create info that verifies existing belief
  22. belief perseverance
    tendency to maintain belief even after they have been discredited
  23. self fulfilling prophency
    process by which one;s expectation about a person lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations.
  24. attitude
    a positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object or idea
  25. attitude scale
    a multiple item questionaire designed to measure a person's attitude toward some object
  26. bogus pipeline
    a phone lie-detector test that's sometime used to give truthful answer to sensitive questions
  27. EMG
    records facial muscle activity associated with emotion and attitude
  28. implicit attitude
    an attitude one is not aware of having
  29. implicit association test
    a covert measure of unconscious attitude derived from the speed at which ppl resond to pairings of concept
  30. theory of planned behavior
    theory that attitudes toward a specific behavior combine with subjective norms and perceived control to influence a person's action
  31. persuasion
    process by which attitudes are changed
  32. central route to persuasion
    process by which a person thinks carefully about a communication and is influenced by the strength of its argument
  33. peripheral route to persuasion
    which a person does not think carefully about communication and is influenced instead by superficial cues
  34. elaboration
    process of thinking about and scrutinizing the arguments contained in a persuasive communication
  35. sleeper effect
    delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source
  36. need for cognition
    personality variable that distinguishes ppl on the basis of how much they enjoy effortful cognitive activities
  37. inoculation hypothesis
    idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument increase later resistant to that argument
  38. psychological reactance
    theory that ppl react against threats to their freedom by asserting themselves and perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive
  39. cognitive dissonance theory
    theory that holding inconsistent cognitions arouses psychological tension that ppl become motivated to reduce
  40. insufficient justification
    a condition in which ppl freely perform an attitude-discrepant behavior without receiving a large reward
  41. insufficient deterrence
    a condition in which ppl refrain from engaging in a desirable activity, even when ony mild punishment is threatened
  42. conformity
    to change our perceptions, opinions, or behaviors in ways that are consistent with group norms
  43. informational influence
    influence that produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgments
  44. normative influence
    influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant
  45. private conformity
    change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others
  46. public conformity
    superficial change in overt behavior without a corresponding change of opinion that is produced by real or imagined group pressure
  47. minority influence
    process by which dissenters produce change within a group
  48. idiosuncrasy credits
    interpersonal "credits" that a person earns by following group norms
  49. individualism
    a cultural orientation in which independence, autonomy, and self reliance takes priority over group allegiances
  50. collectivism
    cultural orientation in which interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony take priority over personal goals
  51. compliance
    change in behavior that elicited by direct request
  52. foot in the door technique
    two step compliance technique in which an influencer sets the stage for the real request by first getting a person to comply with a much smaller request
  53. lowballing
    a two step in which influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs
  54. door in the face technique
    influencer prefaces the real request with one that is so large that it is rejected
  55. that's not all technique
    influencer begins an inflated request , then decreases its apparent size by offering a discount or bonus
  56. obedience
    behavior change produced by the commands of authority
  57. social impact theory
    that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to target person
  58. group cohesiveness
    extent to which forces push group members closer together, such as intimacy, unity, and commitment to group goals
  59. social facilitation
    process whereby the presence of others enhance performance on easy task but impairs performance on difficult tasks
  60. mere presence theory
    mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects
  61. evaluation apprehension theory
    presence of others will produce socail faciliation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators
  62. distraction conflict theory
    presence of other will produce social faciliation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict
  63. social loafing
    group produced reduction in indv. output on tasks where contributions are pooled
  64. collective effort model
    indv. will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their indv. efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for acheiving outcomes that they value
  65. deindivduation
    the loss of a person's sense of individuality

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