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What is learning?
Process by which experiences produces a relatively enduring change in an organism behavior or capabilities
How is learning measure?
- By change in performances
- i.e., IQ test
Define operant conditioning
- Behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminish; punish
- Learned - operating is learning by consequences; behavior occur before resulting consequence
What does positive reinforcement do?
add to increasae behavior
What does negative reinforcement do?
take away to decrease to behavior
What does reinforcement do?
Increase probability will be repeated in future
What does positive punishment do?
Add something to decrease a behavior
What does negative punishment do?
Take away something pleasent to decrease behavior
What do punishment do?
Decrease probability preceeding events will occur in future
What is discriminative stimulus?
Signal the presence of particular contigencies of reinforcement
What is shaping?
- Reinforcement begin with behavior that the organism already performs
- -reinforcement is made contingent on behaviors that increasingly approximate the desired behavior
- i.e., mouse press button for food
Define observation learning
Learning by observation and imitating the behavior of others
Define vicarious conditioning
Learning the consequences of an action from observing its consequences for someone else
- horse learned math
- Berlin 1904
What are the characteristics of learning?
- Learn to adapt to environment, all living organisms
- relatively permenant
- change in knowledge or behavior arising from experience
What are two major kinds of learning?
- I. Classical (Pavlov) - Learning by association
- II. Operant/Instrumental (Skinner) - Learning behavior and consequences
Pavlov's Classical Condition
Name 2 examples of human classical conditioning
- 1. Phobias- Fear
- 2. Durg tolerance/overdose
- 3. "cephalic" insulin
- 4. "scapegoat food" -- Berstein
- Taught fear of rat
- generalize fear with similar shape, size and color
What cause overdose?
Some cues to prep body are missing
"cephalic" insulin response
Learn to secrete insulin at the sight/smell of food
"scapegoat food" -- Berstein
Cancer patient receiving chemothreapy can learn to associate the nausea with novel food
Basic Pavlovian phenomenon
- Order of CS and UCS matters
- that which predicts gets learned
- orders matter!
- Present CS without CSC and the CR dies
- -means extinction is not process of forgetting but of learning not to respond
What is spontaneous recoverty?
After period of time, new presentation of CS elicits CR
CR elicited by stimulus similar to orignal CS
CR not elicited by stimulus that is different (enough) from original CS
Sensory Preconditioning and high Order Conditioning
Learn CR to CS newer pair with UCS
Temporal contiguity of CS and US is ensential for learning
Taste Aversion Learning
the "Garcia effect"
x-ray: rats stay away from drinking water after x-ray
Edward L. Thordike
Cats in "puzzle box", make response to get out quicker after many tries
Thorndikes"s "Law of Effect"
- Behavior that have favorable consequences will tend to be repeatedBehavior with unfavorable consequences will tend not to be repeated
- The opportunity to engage in preferred behavior can be used as a reward for engaging in less-preferred behavior
- e.g., do chores to drive car
Skinners Schedules of Reinforcement
Reward after specific number of responses
Reinforcement of a response after an unspecifc number of responses
reinforces a response after a specific time has elapsed
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
- Stop rewarding, and response returns to prior frequency
- fixed variable resistive to extinction
stimuli that indicate current schedule of reinforcement
Discriminative stimuli for human
- dial tone
- mom vs dade
- traffic lights
According to B.F. Skinner, is reinforcement necessary for learning? Is he right?
- No reinforcement is not necessary for learning. Latent learning proof Skinner wrong