Learning and Conditioning

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skyy22
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42659
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Learning and Conditioning
Updated:
2010-10-26 16:57:34
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Intro Psychology
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Notes from lecture and discussion
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  1. What is learning?
    Process by which experiences produces a relatively enduring change in an organism behavior or capabilities
  2. How is learning measure?
    • By change in performances
    • i.e., IQ test
  3. Define operant conditioning
    • Behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminish; punish
    • Learned - operating is learning by consequences; behavior occur before resulting consequence
  4. What does positive reinforcement do?
    add to increasae behavior
  5. What does negative reinforcement do?
    take away to decrease to behavior
  6. What does reinforcement do?
    Increase probability will be repeated in future
  7. What does positive punishment do?
    Add something to decrease a behavior
  8. What does negative punishment do?
    Take away something pleasent to decrease behavior
  9. What do punishment do?
    Decrease probability preceeding events will occur in future
  10. What is discriminative stimulus?
    Signal the presence of particular contigencies of reinforcement
  11. What is shaping?
    • Reinforcement begin with behavior that the organism already performs
    • -reinforcement is made contingent on behaviors that increasingly approximate the desired behavior
    • i.e., mouse press button for food
  12. Define observation learning
    Learning by observation and imitating the behavior of others
  13. Define vicarious conditioning
    Learning the consequences of an action from observing its consequences for someone else
  14. Clever Hans
    • horse learned math
    • Berlin 1904
  15. What are the characteristics of learning?
    • Learn to adapt to environment, all living organisms
    • relatively permenant
    • change in knowledge or behavior arising from experience
  16. What are two major kinds of learning?
    • I. Classical (Pavlov) - Learning by association
    • II. Operant/Instrumental (Skinner) - Learning behavior and consequences
  17. Pavlov's Classical Condition
  18. Name 2 examples of human classical conditioning
    • 1. Phobias- Fear
    • 2. Durg tolerance/overdose
    • 3. "cephalic" insulin
    • 4. "scapegoat food" -- Berstein
  19. Little Albert
    • Taught fear of rat
    • generalize fear with similar shape, size and color
  20. What cause overdose?
    Some cues to prep body are missing
  21. "cephalic" insulin response
    Learn to secrete insulin at the sight/smell of food
  22. "scapegoat food" -- Berstein
    Cancer patient receiving chemothreapy can learn to associate the nausea with novel food
  23. Basic Pavlovian phenomenon
    • Order of CS and UCS matters
    • that which predicts gets learned
    • orders matter!
  24. Extinction
    • Present CS without CSC and the CR dies
    • -means extinction is not process of forgetting but of learning not to respond
  25. What is spontaneous recoverty?
    After period of time, new presentation of CS elicits CR
  26. Response Generalization
    CR elicited by stimulus similar to orignal CS
  27. CR not elicited by stimulus that is different (enough) from original CS
    Stimulus discrimination
  28. Sensory Preconditioning and high Order Conditioning
    Learn CR to CS newer pair with UCS
  29. Temporal contiguity of CS and US is ensential for learning
  30. Taste Aversion Learning
    the "Garcia effect"
  31. Garcia
    x-ray: rats stay away from drinking water after x-ray
  32. Edward L. Thordike
    Cats in "puzzle box", make response to get out quicker after many tries
  33. Thorndikes"s "Law of Effect"
    • Behavior that have favorable consequences will tend to be repeated
    • Behavior with unfavorable consequences will tend not to be repeated
  34. Operant terminology
  35. Premack Principle
    • The opportunity to engage in preferred behavior can be used as a reward for engaging in less-preferred behavior
    • e.g., do chores to drive car
  36. Skinners Schedules of Reinforcement
  37. Define Fixed-Ratio
    Reward after specific number of responses
  38. Define Variable-Ratio
    Reinforcement of a response after an unspecifc number of responses
  39. Defined Fixed-Interval
    reinforces a response after a specific time has elapsed
  40. Define Variable-interval
    reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
  41. Define extinction
    • Stop rewarding, and response returns to prior frequency
    • fixed variable resistive to extinction
  42. discriminative stimuli
    stimuli that indicate current schedule of reinforcement
  43. Discriminative stimuli for human
    • dial tone
    • location
    • mom vs dade
    • traffic lights
  44. According to B.F. Skinner, is reinforcement necessary for learning? Is he right?
    • Yes
    • No reinforcement is not necessary for learning. Latent learning proof Skinner wrong

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