absence of pathologic process that causes illness.
Disease for others means
optimum functioning in every level.
relative state in which one is able to function well physically, mentally, socially, and spiritually in order to express full range of one's unique potentialities within the environment in which one is living.
disease of body or mind.
Cultural, educational, and social differences, you and the patient could have
totally different ideas about health and illness and what constitutes "good" health and effective health practices.
In 1946 the World Health Organization redefined health as
the state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Chronic illness is
persisting for a long time such as blindness, deafness, or living with an anatomic defect
Only the person
can tell you if she feels ill.
An acute illness is
is one that develops suddenly and resolves in a short time. Example Intestinal flu
Chronic illness such as hypertension
tends to develop slowly over a long period and last throughout life.
Terminal illness is
one for which there is no cure available; it ends in death.
In the terminal phase of illness,
death usually occurs within a short period, such as a few months, weeks, or days.
Primary illness is
one that develops without being caused by another health problem.
Secondary illness is
resulting from or is caused by a primary illness.
Peripheral vascular disease resulting from diabetes is an example
of a secondary illness and occurs because of the effect diabetes has on blood vessels.
Sickle cell anemia is
an inherited (genetic) disease.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a
congenital (present at birth) disorder caused by the intake of alcohol during pregnancy.
is one for which there is no known etiology (cause).
3 Stages of Illness
1. transition stage (onset)
2. acceptance stage (sick role)
3. convalescence stage (recovery)
the onset of illness may consist of vague, nonspecific symptoms. One may deny feeling ill, but recognize that symptoms of an illness are present.
occurs as a denial of illness stops and a "sick role" is assumed. Involves acknowleding illness and engaging in measures to become well.
the process of recovering after the illness and regaining health.
an adjustment in structure or habits. to limitations and positive use of remaining capabilities
lack of adjustment.
reaching one's full potential and fulfilled.
High-level wellness is
to signify the ideal state of health in every dimension of the human personality.
In Dunn's view
each person accepts responsibility and takes an active part in improving and maintaining her own state of wellness.
adjusting to or accepting challenges, abilities to best advantage and to adapt to conditions that cannot be changed.
Health behavior is
any action undertaken in order to promote health, prevent disease, or detect disease in an early stage.
Illness behavior is
any activity a person takes in order to determine her actual state of health and to seek a suitable remedy for a health problem.
Judgmental terms such as
noncompliant, uncooperative, ignorant, lazy, or unmotivated should not be used to describe another person's health behavior.
Each patient must be dealth with as
a unique individual whose concepts of health and illness and health care might be different from one's own.
Holistic approach is
one that considers the biologic, psychological, sociologic, and spiritual aspects and needs of the person.
defined as the arrangement of objects, elements, or values in order of their importance.
physical harm, from a nursing standpoint, is often equivalent in importance to physical needs.
Active listening on the part of the nurse is
essential in meeting parents' security needs because to feel secure, they must feel that their needs are being accurately perceived.
Self actualization is
reaching one's full potential.
a tendency of biologic systems to maintain stability of the internal environment by continually adjusting to changes necessary for survival.
steady state or equilibrium in which there are variations within set limits.
homeostasis and causes the body to attempt to adapt.
adverse stimulus. May be physical, mental, or emotional and can come from within the body or from the environment.
not subject to voluntary control.
Fight or flight is
when the brain perceives a situation as threatening, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the physiologic funtions.
Hans Seyle stated
that a general adaptation syndrome occurs in response to long-term exposure to stress.
Seyle 3 stages are
1. Alarm stage- hormone release mobilizes the body's defense.
2. Stage of resistance- body is battling for equilibrium
3. Stage of exhaustion- occurs if the stressor is severe enough or is present over a long enough period of time to deplete the body's resources for adapt.
Coping mechanisms are
to help us to resist and master stressors. Are learned and once used successfully, they become part of our psychological defense armor.
Defense mechanisms are
strategies that protect us from increasing anxiety.
Measures that help to control the degree of anxiety and reaction to stressors include
progressive relaxation, imagery, massage, biofeedback, yoga and meditation.
blocking a wish or desire from conscious expression. Forgetting the name of someone for whom you have intense negative feelings.
a more serious form of repression. Person lives as though an unwanted piece of info or reality does not exist. I do not have a problem with alcohol.
attributing an unconscious impulse, attitude, or behavior to someone else (blaming or scape-goating). Attraction to friend's wife, accuses own wife of flirting.
an intense feeling regarding an object, person or feeling is out of awareness and is unknowingly acted out consciously in an opposite manner. Treat someone you dislike in an overly friendly manner.
returning to an earlier level of adaptation when severly threatened. Child resumes bedwetting, after having long since stopped, when her baby brother is born and fussed over at home.
unconsciously falsifying an experience by giving a contrived, socially acceptable, and logical explanation to justify an unpleasant experience or questionable behavior. Students failure on exam blames teacher poor material and unfairness.
modeling behavior after someone else. 6 yr old girl dresses up in her mothers dress and shoes.
a more primitive form of identification. more closely relates to unconscious imitation. irritable after angry interactions with parents.
discharging intense feelings for one person onto another object or person who is less threatening, thereby satisfying an impulse with a sub object. childs been scolded hits own doll.
rechanneling an impulse into a more socially desirable object. Student satisfies sexual curiousity by conducting research into sexual behaviors .