psych test 3

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psych test 3
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2010-10-17 21:23:31
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  1. Group living offered many advantages such as?
    increased safety in presence of danger, cooperation with others, to complete challenging tasks, and rearing children
  2. today we work hard to maintain our relationships, going so far as to modify our behavior when we are in the presence of others. Two examples?
    • social facilitation: presence of others improves our performance. (depend on the situation or task at hand, how easy or difficult the task is, and how excited you are)
    • social loafing: occurs when the presence of others causes one to relax one's standards and slack off
  3. societal or culturally impose rules about acceptable behavior are called ___. (vary by culture)
    social norms
  4. ___ occurs when people adjust their behavior to what others are doing or adhere to the norms of their culture
    conformity
  5. Two types of conformity?
    informational social influence: occurs when people conform to the behavior of others because they view them as a source of knowledge about what they are supposed to do. This type of conformity is most pronounced in ambiguous or novel situations

    normative social influence: occurs when people go along with the behavior of others in order to be accepted by them
  6. What is the Asch study?
    three lines: more than 3/4 participants went along with the group (confederates = people who are part of the study) even when the group answer was clearly wrong; when participants worked along, the rarely made any errors
  7. ______ says that our likelihood of following either informational or normative social influence depends on three different aspects of the group: how importnat the group is to you, how close the group is to you in space and time, and how many people are in the group
    social impact theory
  8. In collectivist cultures, what matter more?
    • groups matter more than the individual, so any group-preserving behavior (such as conformity) would b
    • e valued and encouraged
  9. Sometimes a single individual or small number of individuals (minority) influences the entire group ()majority). To have this happen, what must happen?
    majority must present a consistent, unwavering message
  10. Most often minority opinions shifts majority opinion by means of _____
    informational social influence (if a group encounters a situation in which the members are unsure about what to do and a minority carefully presetns a well-thought-out position, then the majority might accept it)
  11. Obedience
    kind of conformity in which people yield to the social pressure of an authority figure
  12. Who is Milgram?
    • recruited people from the community to participate in an experiment at Yale:
    • experimenter showed both the teacher and learner to the adjoining room where the learner would be seated. Leaner's task - learning words. Teacher: giving mild electric shock when learner makes a mistake. Results: at 150 volts there was a drop in obedience- from 100% to 83%. Some participants stopped, but many went on with the experiment. 65% of participants went all the way to 450 volts.
  13. How we make sense of our social world
    social perception
  14. attributions
    inferences we make about the causes of other people's behavior
  15. occur when one thinks that someone's behavior is caused by something within them, such as personality, motive or attitude
    internal/ dispositional attributions
  16. occur when one thinks that something outside the person, such as the nature of the situation, is the cause of his/her behavior
    external/ situational attributions
  17. The self-serving bias is the tendency to make _____ for our own failures but ___ for our successes
    situational attributions; dispositional attributions
  18. According to research, most of us are poor ____. Why?
    lie detectors; rely too much on miselading cues (over-interpreting ambiguous nonverbal cues); we should focus on inconsistent behaviors
  19. best lie detectors?
    attend to nonverbal information more than verbal information
  20. What are schemas?
    lenses through which one filters perceptions (likely to color our interpretations when we encounter ambiguous information)
  21. schemas of how people are likely to behave based simply on the groups to which they belong
    stereotypes (formed conclusions about people before we even interact with them)
  22. Stereotype characteristics:
    linkled to something factual (does not represent the gorup as a whole); support notions of belonging and exclusion taht can support unfair actions
  23. showing positive feelings twoard people who belong to the same group as us and negative feelings towards those in other groups, we display
    in-group/out-group bias
  24. Consequences of perceinig others as different from us:
    • -evaluate and treat people differently because of the group they belong
    • -based in-group/out-group distinctions
    • -hurts to be excluded from our group
  25. tendency to see all members of an out-group as the same
    out-group homogeneity
  26. What is the Nature-Nurture Pointer relating to exclusion/inclusion?
    social rejection activates the same brain circuitry that is activated by pain
  27. biased attitude toward a group of people or an individual member of a group
    prejudice (stems from stereotypes and a lack of info); (prejudices about race=racism sex= sexism)
  28. preferential treatment of certain people that is usually driven by prejudicial attitudes
    discrimination (result from institutionalized rules)
  29. prejudiced attidues operate outside ____ and sometimes stand in stark contrast to ____
    conscious awareness; one's beliefs
  30. person's favorable/unfavorable beliefs, feelings, actions twaord an object, idea, or person
    attitude
  31. three components of attitudes?
    • affective component: feelings/emotions associated with the belief
    • behavioral component: motive to act in a particular way toward the person or object of the attitude
    • cognitive component: consists of the rational thoughts and beliefs that make up the attitude
  32. evolutionary forces explains automatic responses of attitudes, but many of our attitudes come from experience.
    • nature-nurture pointer:
    • EX: certain negtaive attitudes and emotional responses (snakes, shit) may be so important for our survival that they are part of our genetic hertiage
    • EX: people around us teach us their attitudes through direct/indirect instruction
  33. direct experience with an object, idea, or person increases one's overall preference for it
    mere exposure
  34. ____ and his colleagues introduced the idea of conditioning. Explain
    Mark Zanna; attitude can become paired with a pleasant or unpleasant feeling, leading to attitude change (nonsense syllables paired by emotionally positive or negative words)
  35. Attitudes vary on strength and accessibility. ___ the attitude ___ it is to change
    stronger; harder
  36. feeling of discomfort caused by information that is different from your conception of yourself as a reasonable and sensible person (when two cognitions or beliefs conflict that threaten our images of ourselves)
    cognitive dissonance
  37. in an attempt to reduce this discomfort we:
    • -change our behavior to make it consistent with dissonant cognition
    • -we attempt to justify our behavior by changing one of the cognitions to make it more consistent with our behavior
    • -we add new cognitions that are consistent with the behavior and thus support it

    People experiencing cognitive disdsonance may go extreme lengths to reduce it and maintain our self-esteem. We often end up behaving very irrationally and rationalizing our behavior to reduce cognitive dissonance
  38. occurs when a person or group attempts to changes our opinions, beliefs or choices by explaining or arguing their position
    Persuasion
  39. Three things persasuive attempts depend on?
    who they are ___, method they use, and who we are ___
  40. The more ___ the more likely he/she is to suceed in persuading us.
    prestigious, trustworthy, attractive and familiar
  41. The use of ___ is also persasuive
    fear
  42. The more people know about a topic the ____ their prior opinions are, and the ___ likely tehy are to change them
    firmer; less
  43. refers to the violent behaviors that are intended to cause psychological or physical harm, or both, to another being
    aggression
  44. ____ stems from feelings of anger
    hostile aggression
  45. What's it called when agression is a means to achieve some goal?
    instrumental aggression
  46. Nature-Nurture pointer about aggression?
    aggression results from interaction b/w genetic and social forces (Caspi and colleagues found that when genetic factors combine with an abusive and neglectful environment, the likelihood of violence increases dramatically)
  47. Several brain areas are involved in agression. What are they?
    hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the frontal cortex
  48. What is the frontal lobe cortex responsible for?
    impulse control (often malfunctioning in aggressive and violent people)
  49. Two hormones most consistently related to high levels of agression:
    testosterone and serotonin
  50. What are boys more conssitently aggressive than girls at most ages?
    importance of testosterone in aggression (Relatively high levels of testosterone = propensity toward violence)
  51. What about serotonin?
    low levels of serotonin were found in criminals who had committed violent acts but not in criminals who had committed nonviolent crimes; experimental research with monkeys has confirmed the link b/w low serotonin levels and aggression
  52. How do situations effect aggression?
    sitautions that frustate and prevent us from obtaining our goals arel iekly to amke us aggressive
  53. Moreover, the ___ we are to our goal when we become frustrated, the _____. Example?
    closer; more aggressive we are likely to be

    -Harris had confederates cut in front of people in lines for movies or crowded restaurants, (sometimes they cut in front of second person in line and sometimes they cut in front of someone further back in line. Response of the person standing behind the intruder was much more aggressive when the confederate cut in front of the person second in line)
  54. refers to the behavior that is beneficial to others
    prosocial behavior
  55. state sthat the greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
    bystander effect
  56. there are many people around and the rseponsibility of one person to act seems lessened
    diffusion of responsibility
  57. Factors that influence whether or not someone will intervene in an emergency?
    whether people actually notice the event; when many people are present and doing nothing (people less likely to interpret an event as an emergency), individual must decide that it is their responsibility to do something about the emergency
  58. selfless concern for and helping of others
    altruism
  59. Altruism doesn't make a lot of ___ sense. Why?
    evolutionary; expose themselves to greater danger tha nthjose who selfishly protect themselves
  60. Two explanations for altruistic behavior:
    kin selection: evolutionary favoring of genes that prompt individuals to help their relatives or kin (Burstein and colleagues)

    reciprocal altruism: when you help others in the hope that they will help you in the future (promotes cooperation)
  61. argues that in our relations with others we try to maximize our gains and minimize our losses (we help otheres because such behavior can be rewarding, but we will help only if the rewards outweigh the cost (selfless altruism does not exist)
    social exchange theory
  62. sharing, feeling, and understanding another person's situation
    empathy
  63. hypothesis that states that people will offer sefless help only when they truly empathize with the victim
    Batson's empathy-altruism hypothesis
  64. Two different motivations:
    egoistic motivation is helping in order to relieve one's own stress

    empathic motivation springs from an altruistic desire to reduce the distress of the person in need
  65. What is the nature vs nurture pointer relating to empathy?
    watching someone you love experience pain activates components of physical pain circuitry in the brain (only the the structures in the pain circuit that are the emotional aspect of the pain circuit activates)

    EX: Singer and colleague (studied loved one's pains with MRI scanner. Studied responses when the female partner received a painful stimulus to her hand and then seeing her partner receive the same painful stimulus)
  66. ____ are more likely to like one another and share satisfying, long-lasting relationships
    people with similar ideas, values, and interests
  67. Example/ support?
    • randomly assigned roomates become real friends when they have common backgrounds (Newcomb)
    • people wanna help others who have similar personalitites (Wakimoto, Westmaas)
    • People tend to be attracted to and partner with people of a similar level of attractiveness (Buss)
  68. People tend to be attracted to and partner with people of a similar level of attractiveness
    assortative mating
  69. What makes you more attractive
    average and symmetrical faces (mathematically average in the population)
  70. suggests that men and women face different problems when they seek out mates (so they often approach relationships in very different ways)
    sexual strategies theory
  71. What are there differences in attraction b/w gender?
    • women: paretnal investment is greater
    • men: devote a larger portion of their total mating effort to short-term mating than do women
  72. Men value? Women value?
    signal fertility and accessibility (less true in evaluating long-term patners); provide resources to support their offspring
  73. Sternberg's triangular theory of love: three components

    ____, _____, _____
    • intimacy: close, connected and bonded feelings in loving relationships
    • passion: drives that lead to romance, physical attraction ,sexual consummation, and is accompanied by physiological changes/arousal
    • commitment: refers to both the decision to love someone or not and to the decision to commit to it long-term
  74. ____ exists when intimacy and commitment are high and passion is low; ____ exists when intimacy and passion are high and commitment is low; ____ exists when there is a lot of passion but no intimacy or commitment
    companiote love; romantic love; infatuation

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