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- author "Doc V"
- tags "Fleet Marine Force
- description ""
- fileName "FMF"
- freezingBlueDBID -1.0
- -USMC est. 10NOV1775 @ Tun taven in Philadelphia,PA
- -Captain Samuel Nicholas commanded 2 battalions and is considered the 1st Commandant
- -1834 the Corps became under the NAVY
- - The national security act of 1947, amended in 1952, states the present structure
- -1st Marine landing happened during the Revolutionary War @ New Providence Island in the Bahamas & seized guns & supplies
- - Uniform of the day had a stiff leather stock that was worn around the neck, thus the nickname "Leatherneck"
- -Marines stormed the Barbary pirates stronghold @ Burma on the "Shores of Tripoli".
- -Marines raised the "Stars & Stripes" for the 1st time in the Eastern Hemisphere.
- -During thw Mexican War, Marines occupied the "Halls of Montezuma" during the Battle of Chapultepec in Mexico City.
- -The royal palace fell to invading Marines, who were among the first U.S. troops to enter the capital .
- - Marines also helped take California.
- -Blood stripes were created.
Under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee, U.S. Army,Marines stormed the U.S. arsenal @ Harper's Ferry to put down an attemped slave revolt led by abolitionist John Brown
- -The Marine Corps adopted the "EGA".
- -Brigadier General Jacob Zeilin,7th Commandant, modified the British Marine emblem to depict the Marines as both American & Maritime.
- -The globe & anchor signify worldwide service & sea traditions. The spread eagle symbolizes the nation itself.
- -The official motto of the Marine Corps, "Semper Fidelis", (Latin for always faithful) was adopted.
- -The phrase is more commonly heard as its abbreviation, "Semper Fi".
- -During the Boxer Rebellion in Peking, China, Marines from ships on the Asiatic station defended the American Legation in support of foreign policy.
- - Marines were part of a small multinational defense that protected the Legation Quarter until a relief force arrived and ended the rebellion.
- -The Marine Corps established its aviation unit.
- -Marine Major Alfred A. Cunningham was the 1st pilot.
- -Marines landed as part of the American force in France.
- -Marines participated in 8 distinct operations, distinguished themselves & were awarded a number of decorations, among them the French Fourragere still worn by the 5th & 6th Marines.
- -The Marine Corps was reorganized into th Fleet Marine Force
- formally establishing the "command & administrative relations between the fleet & the Corps.
- -The Marine Corps Equipment Board was esatablished @ Quantico,VA & the Marines began to devote long hours to testing & developing materials for landing operations & expeditionary service.
- -Marines landed in south Vietnam, which committed thr MC to the longest War in its history.
- -Marines conducted numerous large-scale offensive operations throughout the coruse of the war & particated in the pacification program designed to win aupport of the local populance.
- -Marines landed in the Dominican Republic to evacuate & protect U.S. citizens as part of a multinational force to put down an attemped coup of the local government.
- -Marines deployed to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeepong force in an effort to restore peace & order to this war-torn country.
- -This action further displayed the Marine concept of "Force in Readiness".
- -23 OCT 1983, a suicide truck th bomber attack on the headquaters building killed 241 Americans & wounded 70 others.
- - The last Mrine unit withdrew in July of 1984.
- - Operation Desert Storm was launched after the Iraqi government refused to comply with U.N. resoultions.
- -Marine aviation was heavily used when the air phase commenced in Jan 1991.
- -When massive bombing failed to dislodge the Iraqi forces, Marines ground forces swept into Kuwait & liberated the country ,causing severe damage to the Iraqi military.
Battle of Belleu Woods
- - Marines fought one of thier greastest battles in history @ Belleau Wood, France during WW1.
- - Marines helped crush the German offensive that threatened Paris.
- - The French renamed the area "the Wood of the Brigade of Marines" in honor of those Marines who fought there.
- -German intel evaluated the Marines as "Storm Troops".
- -In reference to their ferocious fighting ability, they called the Marines "Teufelhunden" or "Devil Dogs".
Battle of Guadalcanal
- -7 AUG 1942, The 1st MarDiv landed on the beaches of Guadalcanal in the Soloman islands & launched the 1st U.S. offensive of WW2.
- -This Battle marked the 1st combat test of the new amphibious doctrine & also provided a crucial turning point of the war in the Pacific by providing a base to launch further invasions of japanese held islands.
- - Amphibious landings followed on the remaining Soloman islands of New Georgia, Choiseul (Feint), and Bougainville.
Battle of Tawara
- -The Gilbert islanda were the 1st in the line of advance for the offensive in the Central Pacific.
- -The prime objective was the Tarawa Atoll and Betio island which had been fortified to the point that the Japanese commander proclaimed that it would take a million Americans 100 years to conquer it.
- -20 Nov 1943, Marines landed & secured the island within 76 hours, but paid a heavy price.
- -Because of an extended coral reef, landing craft unloaded Marines hundreds of yards from shore resulting in heavy losses due to enemy fire, and many drowned.
Battle of Mariana Islands
- -Due to the need for airfields by the Air Force & advanced bases for the NAVY, the Marianas were invaded. Landings on the islands of Saipan,Guam,& Tinian accomplished this.
- - During June & July of 1943, Lt General Holland M. Smith led a combined invasion force of Marines & soldiers that totaled over 136,000. This was the greatest # of troops up to that time to operate in the field under Marine command.
Battle of Iwo Jima
- -19 Feb 1945, Marines landed on Iwo Jima in the largest all-Marine battle in history with over 23,300 casualties.
- - the capture of Iwo Jima greatly increased the air support & bombing operations of the Japanese home lands.
- - Of the savage battle , Admiral Chester W. Nimitz said "Among Americans who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue."
Battle of Chosin Reservior
- -Nov 1950, North Korea, Marines were cut off by 10 divisions of Chinese Communist Forces, Marines smashed 7 enemy divisions in thier march from the Chosin Reservoir.
- - The major significance of this retrograde movement was that Marines brought out all operable equipment, properly evacuated thier wounded & dead, & maintained tatical integrity.
Battle of Hue city
- - Jan 1968 during the Vietnamese holiday of Tet, Communist forces launhed a surprise offensive by infiltrating large numbers of thier troops into the major population centers of Hue City, South Vietnam.
- - Marines fought in built up areas for the 1st time since the Korean War forgoing the application of heavy arms to minimize civilian casualties.
- - Fighting was house to house with progress measured in yards, and the city secured on 25th of Feb 1968.
- -Brevet Brigadier General Archibald Henderson "Grand Old Man" beame the Commadant in 1820 & held the post for 39 years.
- -He led the Marines in the Indian wars, Mexican war, opening of China, & disorders in South America.
- -He introduced higher standards of personel appearance,training,disipline, and strived to have the MC known as a professional military force.
- -Sargent Major Quick won the Medal of Honor @ Cuzco Well (Guantanamo Bay,Cuba) for semaphoring an emergemcy lift of the naval bombardment while under Spanish & U.S. shellfire.
- -When employed by the fleet, Marines gave added strength for the capturw and defense of advancing bases, becoming a primary mission of the MC.
- -Sergent Major Daly earned 2 Medals of honor.
- -(1st) during the Chinese Boxer Rebellion.
- -(2nd) First Caco War in Haiti.
- - During the Battle of Belleau Wood, when his unit had been pinned down & thier attack stalled , Gunnery Sgt Daly yelled to his men "C'mon you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever?"
Louis B. "Chesty" Puller
- - Lt. General Puller served in Nicaragua through several periods of political unrest & rebellious activity.
- - Puller & a force of 32 Marines became famous for theor ability to engage rebel groups & bandits near the Honduran border.
- - Puller became known as the "Tiger of the mountains"(1930)
- -The MC mascot, a english bulldog is named "Chesty" in honor of this Brave & fine MC officer.
- -Puller also earned 5 Navy Crosses from Nicaragua, Haiti, WW 2 & Korea.
Gregory R. "Pappy" Boyington
- -Major Boyington is recognized for Marine prowess in aerial dogfights.
- -"Pappy" commanded VMH- 214, the "Black sheep" during WW2.
- -By the end of the War, Major was recognized as the MC's top flying ace with 28 victories (kills) (1945).
Ira H. Hayes
- -The 5th Amphibious Corps of Marines, Commanded by Major General Harry Schmidt, was assigned to take Iwo Jima.
- -Corporal Ira Hayes, a Pima Indian, was one of the Marines immortalized in the now famous photograph taken of the second flag raising on Mount Suribachi shortly after the Japanese stronghold was taken on 23 Feb 1945.
Opha Mae Johnson
- -Pvt Johnson became the 1st enlisted woman on 13 Aug 1918.
- -Her enlistment was a reflection of the dramatic changes in the status of woman brought by the entry of the U.S. In WW1.
- -Marine Reserve (F) was the offical title, but female Marines were better known as "Skirt Marines" or "Marinettes".
Margaret A. Brewer
- -Brigadier General Brewer, then a Colonel, served as the Director of Woman Marines (WM) during the period 1973-1977.
- -She was the seventh & last director of WM , the only post-World War woman to hold the position.
- -Margaret Brewer became the MC First General officer on 11 May 1978.
1st General Order
To take charge of this post & all government property in view.
2nd General Order
To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert & observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.
3rd General Order
To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.
4th General Order
To repeat all calls from post more distant from the guardhouse than my own.
5th General Order
To quit my post only when properly relieved.
6th General Order
To recieve, obey, & pass on to the sentry who relieves me all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day, & officers and noncomissioned officers of the guard only.
7th General Order
To talk to no one except in the line of duty.
8th General Order
To give the alarm in case of fire or disorder.
9th General Order
To call the corporal of the guard in any case not covered by instructions.
10th General Order
To salute all officers & all colors and standards not cased.
11th General Order
To be especially watchful at night & during the time of challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post, & to allow no one to pass without proper authority.
Code of Conduct Article I
- "I am an American, fighting in the armed forces which guard my country and our way of life.
- I am prepared to give my life in thier defense."
Code of Conduct Article II
" I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender the members of my command while they still havethe means to resist."
Code of Conduct Article III
" If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy."
Code of Conduct Article IV
" If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information nor take part in any action which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command. If not I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them in every way."
Code of Conduct V
" When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral statements disloyal to my country and its allies, or harmful to thier cause."