Vocab number 2

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Vocab number 2
2010-12-02 22:41:45
Psychology vocab

starts with group VI
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  1. Punishment
    anychange in surroundings that occurs after a given response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future
  2. Law of Effect
    Thorndike’s Law that holds that behavior is chosen/modified because of consequences
  3. “Origin of Species”
    Darwin’s work that introduced evolution and his theory of natural selection which is considered the foundation of evolutionary biology
  4. Conditioned stimulus
    in classical conditioning, it is the previously neutral stimulus that eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response
  5. Discrimination learning
    learning to distinguish between two similar stimulus one which predicts reinforcement and one which does not
  6. Unconditioned response
    the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus
  7. Unconditioned stimulus
    the stimulus that naturally triggers a response; the smelling of food (makes you hungry)
  8. Reflex
    (instinct) any unlearned behavior
  9. Schedules of reinforcement
    the protocol for determining when responses or behaviors will be reinforced; ex. variable ratio
  10. Mental set
    a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past.
  11. Habituation
    the psychological process in which there is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to that stimulus over time
  12. Stimulus Generalization
    when a subject learns a specific behavior to a specific stimulus and then responds similarly to other similar stimulus; ex. fear of pitbulls after an attack leads to fear of all dogs
  13. Homeostasis
    a tendency to maintain a balance or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a certain level
  14. Response Shaping
    breaking down a complex behavior and rewarding each individual action in order to produce adesired response
  15. Instinct
    (reflex) any unlearned behavior
  16. Secondary Reinforcement
    any reinforce that gains its reinforcing properties through association with aprimary reinforce (reinforcement is not a necessity such as food/water)
  17. Deprivation
    Withholding something essential from an organism in order to increase responsiveness.
  18. Imprinting
    a learning process early in life where species specific patterns of behavior are established
  19. Primary Reinforcement
    a reinforcement that satisfies a biological need
  20. Delay of reinforcement
    A delay between presenting stimulus and reinforcement
  21. Selective Attention
    the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktailparty effect
  22. Spontaneous Recovery
    the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response.
  23. Skinner Box
    a special cage designed by Skinner that has a bar or pedal on one wall that, when pressed, causes a little mechanism to release a food pellet into the cage; used with operant condition
  24. Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism
    the belief that all behavior is the result of operant or classically conditioned processes.
  25. Negative Reinforcement
    a stimulus is removed or "subtracted" from the situation as a form of reinforcement.
  26. Central Nervous System –
    part of the nervous system that contains the brain and spinal cord
  27. Neurotransmitter
    chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, there by influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
  28. Cerebral Cortex
    the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center
  29. Action Potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon that is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane
  30. Left cerebral hemisphere
    The side of the brain that focus on the literal meanings, exact calculation, cannot think abstractly or symbolically.
  31. Cerebellum
    the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
  32. Dendrite
    the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  33. electroencephalograph (EEG)
    an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. ‘These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
  34. right cerebral hemisphere
    the part of the cerebral cortex that deals primarily with emotional processing and social conduct
  35. DNA
    a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
  36. Gene
    the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  37. Hormones
    chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
  38. Parietal Lobe
    the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
  39. REM sleep
    rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
  40. One word got doubled up so only nine this week
  41. Estrogen
    a sex hormone, secreted ingreater amounts by females than by males; In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
  42. Frontal Lobe
    the frontal region ofthe cerebral cortex mostly responsible for judgment, muscle movements, and planning
  43. Hypothalamus
    a neural structure thatdirects bodily functions such as eating, drinking, and body temperature
  44. Occipital Lobe
    the back region ofthe brain primarily responsible for the process of sight
  45. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
  46. Sympathetic Nervous System
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing itsenergy in stressful situations
  47. Autonomic Nervous System
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
  48. Chromosome
    thread like structuresmade of DNA molecules that contain the genes
  49. Gonads
    a sex gland, either testis orovaries, in which gametes are produced
  50. GABA
    the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.