embryology

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sweetpea281
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42750
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embryology
Updated:
2010-10-17 20:43:30
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ch8
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chapter 8 basic tissues
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  1. lines the internal and external body surfaces
    epithelium
  2. what is the function of the epithelium?(TAPSS)
    tissue absorption, protection, secretion and sensory
  3. epithelium contains no ____ ____
    blood vessels
  4. t/f epithelium is highly vascular
    false- no blood vessels
  5. epithelium gets oxygen and nutrition from the _____ ____ through _____
    • connective tissue
    • diffusion
  6. epithelium has a rapid ____ ____
    turnover time
  7. defined as how quickly the cells can replace themselves
    turnover time
  8. epithelial cells reproduce by ______ so they can grow back _____
    • mitosis
    • quickly
  9. what are the 3 parts of classification
    • layers
    • shape
    • keratin
  10. only one layer of cells above the basement membrane
    simple epithelium
  11. multiple layers of cells above the basement membrane
    stratified epithelium
  12. cells look like multiple layers because they are different heights but they each touch basement membrane
    pseudostratified
  13. flattened plate like cells
    squamous
  14. cell height < cell width
    squamous
  15. cube-shaped cells
    cuboidal
  16. cell height=cell width
    cuboidal
  17. rectangular or tall cells
    columnar
  18. cell height > cell width
    columnar
  19. tough, fibrous, waterproof protein that blacks bacteria and is resistant to friction
    keratin
  20. what kinds of tissues produce keratin
    heavy use (hands)
  21. if tissues are put under extra stress and needs more protection
    hyperkeratinized
  22. the _____ is written into the DNA
    keratin
  23. what epithelium lines blood vessels, lymph vessels and the heart?
    simple squamous epithelium
  24. what epithelium lines the salivary gland ducts
    simple cuboidal
  25. what epithelium lines the salivary gland ducts and is inner enamel epithelium?
    simple columnar
  26. what kind of epithelium lines the upper respiratory tract
    pseudostratified
  27. what epithelium makes up the superficial oral mucosa
    stratified squamous epithelium
  28. what kind of epithelium makes up the superficial skin (epidermis)
    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  29. stratified epithelium is classified by the ______ layer-which is almost always _____
    • outermost
    • squamous
  30. the velcro between epithelium and connective tissue
    basement membrane
  31. what are the two parts of the basement membrane
    • basal lamina
    • reticular lamina
  32. what are the two parts of the basal lamina
    • lamina lucida
    • lamina densa
  33. what produces that basal lamina
    epithelium
  34. which layer is the clear layer in the basal lamina?
    lamina lucida
  35. what is the dense layer in the basal lamina?
    lamina densa
  36. the _____ _____ loop into the lamina lucida
    transmembrane proteins
  37. what produces the reticular lamina?
    conective tissue
  38. the reticular lamina consists of ______ _____ _____ that loop into the _____ ____
    • anchoring collagen fibers
    • reticular lamina
  39. what are the 4 types of connective tissue?
    • soft CT
    • firm CT
    • rigid CT
    • fluid CT
  40. what is the function of connective tissue? (SAD)
    support, attachment and defense
  41. what is the most common cells in connective tissue?
    fibroblasts
  42. ______ secrete intercellular substance and various kinds of fibers
    fibroblasts
  43. what are three kinds of fibroblasts?
    • collagen fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  44. what kind of fibers are very strong, rope-like and found in teeth, tendons and bone
    collagen fibers
  45. what kind of fibers are able to stretch and tehn return to its original shape and found in the soft palate
    elastic fibers
  46. what kind of fibers are very fine, hair-like fibers, found in embryonic structures (spleen)
    reticular fibers
  47. intercellular substance and fibers secreted by fibroblasts
    matrix
  48. CT_____ is deep to the epithelium and has two layers
    proper
  49. what are the two layers of CT proper
    • loose CT
    • Dense CT
  50. cells, fibers and intercellular substance that are loosely packed with blood vessels and nerves
    loose CT
  51. ___ CT extends into epithelium making ____ _____ ____, these help to increase the surface area between the epithelium and CT
    • loose
    • connective tissue papillae
  52. tightly packed tissue that consists mainly of protein fibers which make it very strong
    dense CT
  53. what are two types of specialized CT
    • adipose CT
    • elastic CT
  54. _____ CT has very little matrix but lots of fat cells packed together
    adipose
  55. _____ CT has a large number of elastic fibers for stretchy tissues
    elastic
  56. what is firm CT?
    cartilage
  57. what is a firm and non calcified tissue with no blood vessels and no nerve supply
    cartilage
  58. what is three purposes of cartilage?
    • forms template of skeleton
    • cushions bones in joints
    • structural support for soft tissues
  59. what is the CT that surrounds the cartilage and what does it do?
    • perichondrium
    • provides blood and nerve supply for cartilage
  60. cartilage repairs _____ why?
    • slowly
    • no blood supply
  61. what produces cartilage matrix
    chondrocytes
  62. what is the small space that surrounds each condrocyte?
    lacuna
  63. what is rigid CT
    bone
  64. what are the five parts of macroscopic bone
    • bone marrow
    • endosteum
    • cancellous bone
    • compact bone
    • periosteum
  65. what is the innermost part of the bone where blood cells are produced?
    bone marrow
  66. what lines the bone marrow
    endosteum
  67. what surrounds the bone marrow and is spongy?
    cancellous bone
  68. what is the lattice work that cancellous bone forms called?
    trabeculae
  69. what is very dense and surrounds cancellous bone?
    compact bone
  70. what is a double layered CT sheath that surrounds the entire bone and what does it contain?
    • periosteum
    • blood vessels and nerves
  71. what are bone forming cells?
    osteoblasts
  72. what are two parts of the microscopic bone?
    • haversian canal
    • oseocytes
  73. what is the canal for blood vessels and nerves in microscopic bone?
    haversian canal
  74. what surrounds the haversian canal an secret a matrix?
    osteocytes
  75. what is the matrix sectreted by osteocytes called?
    osteoid
  76. when the osteoid calcifies in a sheet what is it called?
    lamellae
  77. 5 to 20 layers of ______ create a _____
    • lamellae
    • osteon
  78. groups of _____ come together to form bone
    osteons
  79. because each _____ has its own blood supply, bone repairs _____
    • osteon
    • quickly
  80. inorganic substance in crystalline formation that mineralizes the bone
    calcium hydroxyapatite
  81. calcium hydroxapatite is __% mineralized
    50
  82. what is fluid CT?
    blood
  83. what are the three parts of blood?
    • plasma
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
  84. what is the fluid substance that carries everything in the blood
    plasma
  85. what in the blood carries the oxygen?
    red blood cells
  86. what in the blood is the immune response?
    white blood cells
  87. what kind of tissue cells are capable of contraction?
    muscle tissue
  88. what are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
  89. which muscle tissue is voluntary muscles controlled by somatic nervous system?
    skeletal muscle
  90. which muscle tissue is controlled by the somatic nervous system?
    skeletal muscles
  91. which muscle tissue is involuntary muscle and controlled by autonomic nervous system?
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
  92. which muscle tissue is controlled by the autonmoic nervous system?
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
  93. which muscle tissue is interconnected to cause synchronized contraction?
    cardiac muscle
  94. what are the parts to nervous tissue?
    • neuron
    • nerve
    • synapse
    • afferent
    • efferent
  95. what is a functional cellular component of the nervous system?
    neuron
  96. what is a bundle of neurons
    nerve
  97. what is a junction between two neurons where impulses are transmitted?
    synapse
  98. what is a sensory nerve that carries information to the brain
    afferent
  99. what is a motor nerve that carries commands from the brain to the body?
    efferent
  100. body to brain=
    afferent
  101. brain to body=
    efferent

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