PSY Chapters 4 & 8

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memaryme12
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42790
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PSY Chapters 4 & 8
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2010-10-17 19:53:25
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PSY Chapters 4 & 8
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  1. Algorithm
    a learned set of rules that always leads to the correct solution of a problem
  2. Astigmatism
    Defects in the cornea, lens or eye that cause some areas of vision to be out of focus
  3. Auditory ossicles
    • three small bones that link the eardrum with the cochlea
    • Common names: hammer, anvil, stirrup
  4. Chronological age
    a person's age in years
  5. Clairvoyance
    purported ability to perceive evetns or gain information in ways that appear unaffected by distance or normal physical barriers
  6. Cochlea
    snail shaped organ that makes up the inner ear
  7. Congnition
    process of thinking or mentally processing information (images, concepts, words, rules, and symbols)
  8. Concept formation
    process of classifing information into meaninful categories
  9. Concepts
    an idea representing a category of related objects or events
  10. conductive hearing loss
    poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear
  11. cones
    visual receptors for colors and daylight visual acuity
  12. convergent thinking
    thinking directed toward discovery of a single established correct answer; conventional thinking
  13. cornea
    clear membrane on the eye that bends light in ward
  14. divergent thinking
    thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives; a major element in original or creative thought
  15. extranseroy preception (ESP)
    purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot explained by known capacities of the sensory organs
  16. fixation
    tendency to repeat wrong solutions or faulty responses, expecially as a result of becoming blind to alternatives
  17. functional fixedness
    a rigidity in problems solving caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects
  18. giftedness
    either the possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes
  19. grammer
    set of rules for combining language units into meaninful speech or writing
  20. gustation
    sense of taste
  21. hair cells
    part of the Corti inside the cochlea that detect waves in the fluid
  22. heuristic
    any strategy or technique that aids problem solving, especially by limiting the number of possible solutions to be tired
  23. hyperopia
    difficulty focusing nearby objects (farsightedness)
  24. illogical thought
    thought that is intutive, haphazard or irrational
  25. insight
    a sudden mental reorganization of a problem that makes the solution obvious
  26. intellectual disability
    presence of a developmental disability, a formal IQ score below 70, or a significant impairment of adaptive behavior
  27. intelligence
    global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment
  28. intelligence quotient (IQ)
    an index of intelligence defined aw a person's mental age divided by his or her chronological age and multiplied by 100
  29. language
    words or symbols, and rules for combinig them, that are used for thinking and communication
  30. logical thought
    drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles of reasoning
  31. mental age
    average mental ability people display at a given age
  32. morphemes
    smallest, meaninful units in a language, such as syllables or words
  33. myopia
    difficulty focusing distant objects (nearsightedness)
  34. noise-induced hearing loss
    damage caused by exposing the hair cells to excessively loud sounds
  35. olfaction
    sense of smell
  36. originality (in thought)
    how novel or unsual your ideas are
  37. oval window
    membrane on the concelea that moves back and forth. it makes waves in the fluid inside the cochlea as it moves back and forth
  38. perception
    mental process of organizing ssensations into meaningful patterns
  39. phonemes
    basic speech sounds of a language
  40. photoreceptors
    light sensitive cells
  41. pinna
    visible, external part of the ear
  42. precognition
    purported ability to perceive or accurately predict future events
  43. presbyopia
    farsightedness caused by aging
  44. psi phenomena
    event that seem to lie outside of the realm of accepted scientific law
  45. psychokinesis
    reported ability to exert influence over inanimated objects (such as bending spoons) by will power, "mind over matter"
  46. retina
    light sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye
  47. rods
    visual receptors for dim light that produce only black and white sensations
  48. rods
    visual receptors for dim light that produce only black and white sensations
  49. semantics
    study of meanings in words and language
  50. sensation
    a sensory impression; also the process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs
  51. sensorineural hearing loss
    loss of hearing caused by damage to the inner ear hair cells or auditory nerves
  52. sensory codes
    codes used by the sense organs to transmit information to the brain
  53. skin receptors
    specialized endings of cells that collect information about the environment and activates at least five different sensations: light touch, pressure, pain, cold, and warmth
  54. syntax
    rulse for ordering words when forming sentences
  55. taste buds
    receptor organ for taste
  56. telepathy
    reported ability to communicate directly with another person's mind
  57. tympanic membrane
    eardrum
  58. understanding/ problem solving
    a deeper comprehension of the nature of the problem
  59. fixation
    tendency to repeat wrong solutions or faulty responses, especially as a result of becoming blind to alternatives
  60. funtional fixedness
    rigidity in problem solving caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects
  61. common barriers to problem solving
    • emotional
    • cultural
    • learned
    • perceptual barriers
  62. emotional barriers
    inhibition and fear of making a fool of oneself, fear of making a mistake. inability to tolerate ambiguity, excessive self-critisim
  63. cultural barriers
    values that hold that fantasy is a waste of time; that playfulness is for children only; that reason logic and numbers are good; that feelings, intuitions, plreasure and humor are bad or have no value in the serious business problem solutions
  64. learned barriers
    conventions about uses, meanings, possibilities, taboos
  65. perceptual barriers
    habits leading to a failure to identify important elements of a problem

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