An expert teacher engages in reflective teaching or reflective practice. An expert teacher focuses on the students' needs and judges by successes. An expert teacher listens to his/her students, and is committed to the students. An expert teacher will take care of not only academic but emotional needs, and will carefully plan and teach the basic procedures for living and learning in their classes.
An expert teacher is able to multi-task, and is organized and prepared.
Major Goal of Educational Psychology
To understand what happens when someone teaches something to someone else in something.
Common sense: Does it work in the classroom?
Instead of common sense, expert teachers should rely on RESEARCH!
There is no substitute for knowledge. A common sense approach is both inadequate and inaccurate when it comes to teaching. Beware that researcher bias can negatively influence the accuracy of research findings and how research is interpreted.
2 Main Categories of Research
Experimental Research and Descriptive (includes Correlational Research)
The power of prediction!
Their purpose is to simply describe events in a particular class or several classes.
- collect detailed info about specific situations using observation, surveys, interviews, recordings or a combination of these methods.
A research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between 2 or more variables.
Describe what already is.
Statistical descriptions of how closely two variable are related.
A number that indicates both the strength and the direction of a relationship between 2 events or measurements. Correlations DO NOT show causation!
one variable gets larger so does the other - /\ and /\ or \/ and \/
one variable increases the other decreases - /\ and \/ or \/ and /\
Strength of a Correlation
Stronger = fewer exceptions
The closer the correlation coefficient is to 1.0 (+ or -) the stronger it is.
The closer the correlation coefficient is to 0 the weaker it is.
The power of causation.
Variables are manipulated and the effects recorded.
Single-Subject - systematic interventions to study effects with one person, often by applying and then withdrawing a treatment
Microgenetic Studies - detailed observation and analysis of changes in a cognitive process as the process unfolds over a several-day or several-week period of time.
when an experiment is completed, based on the findings, we may be able to say that A causes B
3 Major Influences on Self, Social & Moral Development
Bioecological Model of Human Development
The social contexts in which we live are ecosystems because they are in constant interaction and influence each other.
Brofenbrenner - Microsystem
A person's immediate relationships and activities. i.e. family, friends, or teachers and the activities of play and school. Relationships are reciprocal - they flow in both directions.
Brofenbrenner - Mesosystem
Within a microsystem.
The set of interactions and relationships among all the elements of the microsystem. i.e. the family members interacting with each other or with the teacher. All relationships are reciprocal.
Brofenbrenner - Exosystem
Includes all the social setting that affect the child, even though the child is not a direct member of these systems. i.e. Teacher's relations with administrators and the school board, the parent's jobs
Brofenbrenner - Macrosystem
The larger society - its values, laws, conventions, and traditions.
Relational Aggression - threatening or damaging social relationships
Reduce TV Violence by Stressing to Students:
1. Most people do not behave that way.
2. The violent acts on TV are not real.
3. There are better ways to resolve conflicts.
Does watching violent TV increase aggression?
Yes, for both males and females.
Eating disorder - overeating the purge the food by self-induced vomiting or laxitives
Eating disorder - very limited food intake
Adjustment Problem Gender differences
Short term - Both girls and boys have problems
Long term - Boys have more adjustment problems, but girl's adjustment problems are harder to detect. Boys act out aggressively.
setting high but reasonable expectations and helping students reach those goals
being patient, respectful, humorous, willing to listen, interested in students issues and personal problems
Physical and Motor Development
Young Children - Gross-motor skills improve greatly (large muscle movements) and fine-motor skills improve (small muscle movements)
Elementary School Years - physical development is fairly steady with a tremendous variation
Adolescent Years - puberty marks the beginning of sexual maturity: girls between ages 10 & 11, and boys between the ages of 12 & 13
Self-Concept v. Self-Esteem
Self-Concept - Children's understandings of themselves. The attempt to explain ourselves to ourselves. Early view of self are based on immediate behaviors and appearances as they get older they incorporate more abstract qualities.
Self-Esteem - The value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities and behaviors
8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
1. Basic trust v. Mistrust birth-18 mths
2. Autonomy v. Shame/doubt 18 mths-3 yrs
3. Initiative v. Guilt 3 yrs-6 yrs
Elementary and Middle School Years
4. Industry v. Inferiority 6-12 yrs
5. Identity v. Role Confusion Adolescence
Beyond School Years
6. Intimacy v. Isolation Young Adult
7. Generativity v. Stagnation Middle Adult
8. Ego Integrity v. Despair - Late Adult
Erikson's Crisis & Moratorium
Crisis = Resolve crisis move on the the next stage
Moratorium = Adolescents struggling with healthy choices
Marcia's 4 Identity Alternatives for Adolescents
1. Identity Diffusion - Explore or Commit2. Identity Foreclosure - Explore but Commit
3. Identity Achievement - Explore and Commit
4. Moratorium - Explore but Commit
4 Outcomes for Ethnic Minority Youth's Search for Identity
1. Assimilation - Full Adopting
2. Marginality - Alienated and uncomfortable
Nigrescence 5 Stages
Pre-Encounter - Ignoring Race
Encounter - Encounters with racism
Immersion/Emersion - Transition
Internalization - secure and connected to
Internalization-Commitment - continued interest
Theory of Mind
understanding that other people are people too
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
3 Levels of Moral Development
1. Preconventional - Judgement based on own needs
Stage 1 - Punishment-Obedience Orientation: rules are obeyed to avoid punishment
Stage 2 - Personal Reward Orientation: You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours
2. Conventional - Expectations of society and law are taken into account
Stage 3 - Good Boy - Nice Girl Orientation: what pleases, aids and is approved by others
Stage 4 - Law and Order Orientation: laws are absolute
3. Post Conventional - Abstract and personal principles of justice
Stage 5 - Social Contract Orientation: good determined by socially agreed on standards
Stage 6 - Universal Ethical Principle Orientation: good and right matters of individual conscience, involve abstract principles such as justice, human dignity, and equality
Gilligan - Ethic of Care Moral Development
A criticism of Kholberg's Stages
The stages are biased in favor of Western male values that emphasize individualism
Types of Human Development
Grew up in Switzerland and studied biology
The study of knowing
Psychology to Piaget
The perfect blend of biology and philosophy
Piaget - Schemes
Organization of information (like post office boxes)
Piaget - Adaptation
Assimilation and Accomodation
Assimilation - no new scheme because one already exists
Accommodation - new "mailbox" for new information
Piaget - Equilibration
moving from a state of disequilibrium to a state of equilibrium to a higher state of disequilibrium to a higher state of equilibrium, and so forth
Piaget - Disequilibrium
what we know does not equal what we need to know
The majority of the time we are in a constant state of disequilibrium, and that's a good thing!
Piaget - Equilibrium
what we know equals what we need to know
Balance and skilled movements
maybe a role in higher cognitive functions like learning
critical in recalling new info and recent experiences
involved in our ability to learn new information, especially verbal
role in attention and arousal, blocking some messages and sending others on for processing
complex problem solving and language
Overproduction and Pruning #1
Experience-Expectant - synapses are over-produced in certain parts of the brain during certain developmental periods, expecting stimulation
Responsible for general development
Overproduction and Pruning #2
Experience-Dependent - synaptic connections are formed based on the individual's experiences
the coating of axon neuron fibers with an insulating fatty covering
speeds up message transmission and makes it more efficient
the specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain
the brain's adaptability
4 Factors that Interact to Influence Changes in Thinking
Biological Maturation - the unfolding of the biological changes that are genetically programmed
Activity - the ability to act on the environment and learn from it
Social Experiences - learning from others
Equilibration - the act of searching for balance
Piaget - 2 Basic Tendencies Inherited By All Species
Organization - the combining, arranging, recombining and rearranging of behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems
Adaptation - adjusting to the environment
4 Stages of Cognitive Development - Piaget
Sensorimotor Stage - Infancy
Preoperational Stage - Early Childhood to Early Elementary
Concrete Operational Stage - Later Elementary to Middle School
Formal Operational Stage - High School to College
Sensorimotor Stage Characteristics
Child's thinking involves seeing, hearing, moving, touching, tasting, etc.
Object Permanence - objects still exist even when you cannot see them
Preoperational Stage Characteristics
Actions carried out and reversed mentally rather than physically
The child is moving toward mastery but has not yet mastered these mental operations
Semiotic Function - the ability to use symbols to represent actions or objects mentally
Pretending is the first use of symbolism
Reversible Thinking - Thinking backward from the end to the beginning is difficult at this stage
Conservation - Some characteristics of an object remain the same, difficult at this stage
Decentering - focusing on more than one aspect at a time, difficult at this stage
Egocentric - children see the world and the experiences of others from their own view point
Concrete Operational Stage Characteristics
Changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another
Ability to solve conservation problems relies on 3 basic aspects of reasoning:
Identity - student knows that if nothing is added or taken away the material remains the same
Compensation - student know that an apparent change in one direction can be compensated for by a change in another direction
Reversibility - student can cancel out the change that has been made
Classification - grouping objects into categories
Seriation - the process of making an orderly arrangement from large to small and vice versa
This system of thinking still tied to physical reality
Logic is based on concrete situations that can be organized, classified or manipulated
Formal Operational Stage Characteristics
The focus of thinking can shift from what is to what might be.
The hallmark of formal operations -- hypothetico-deductive reasoning. A problem solving strategy in which an individual begins by identifying all the factors that might affect a problem then deduces and systematically evaluates specific solutions.
Adolescent Egocentrism - adolescents recognize that others have different opinions but they just become very focused on their own ideas.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective
Social interactions are more than simple influences on cognitive development. They actually create our cognitive structures and thinking processes.
3 Themes in Vygotsky's Writings
Social Sources of Individual Thinking - social interaction is the origin of higher mental processes such as problem solving
Role of Cultural Tools in learning and development, especially the tool of language - the real tools and symbol systems that allow people in a society to communicate, thing and solve problems
Zone of Proximal Development - the area between the child's current development level (determined by independent problem solving) and the level of development that the child could achieve (with adult guidance or with the help of more capable peers). The space between the boring and the impossible.