AP Psych. chapter 3

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AP Psych. chapter 3
2010-10-17 16:32:00

Chapter 3 vocab.
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  1. axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
    Afferent nerve fibers
  2. the brain and the spinal cord
    central nervous system
  3. a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
  4. a research design in which hereditary influence is assessed by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait
    twin studies
  5. a structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex
  6. small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
    terminal buttons
  7. a microscopic gap between the terminal button of a neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
    synaptic cleft
  8. a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next
  9. the branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies
    sympathetic division
  10. a procedure in which the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures
    split-brain sugery
  11. the system of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
    somatic nervous system
  12. the cell body of a neuron which contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
  13. a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
  14. the stable, negative charge of a neuron when it is inactive
    resting potential
  15. a time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation
    refractory period
  16. a gene whose influence is masked when paired genes are different
    recessive gene
  17. a voltage change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane
    postsynaptic potential (PSP)
  18. the "master gland" of the endocrine system; it releases a great variety of hormones that fan out through the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands
    pituitary gland
  19. the ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in observable characteristics
  20. all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
    peripheral nervous system
  21. left-right imbalances between the cerebral hemispheres in the speed of visual or auditory processing
    perceptual asymmetries
  22. the branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources
    parasympathetic division
  23. chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
  24. individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information
  25. bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
  26. insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons of neurons
    myelin sheath
  27. the segment of the brain stem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain
  28. a densely connected network of structures roughly located along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
    limbic system
  29. destroying a piece of the brain
  30. an electric potential that decreases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
    inhibitory PSP
  31. twins formed from one zygote that splits
    identical twins
  32. a structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
  33. chemical substances released by endocrine glands
  34. the situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are the same
    homozygous condition
  35. the part of the brain that includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons
  36. the situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are different
    heterozygous condition
  37. twins that result when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells forming two seperate zygotes
    fraternal twins
  38. the largest and most complicated region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum
  39. a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy
    fight-or-flight response
  40. an electric potential that increases the likelyhood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
    excitatory PSP
  41. the entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects
  42. a group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodsream that help control bodily functioning
    endocrine system
  43. a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp
    electroencephalograph (EEG)
  44. sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it
    electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
  45. axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body
    efferent nerve fibers
  46. branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
  47. the structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  48. threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
  49. the right and left halves of the cerebrum
    cerebral hemispheres
  50. the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum
    cerebral cortex
  51. a brief change in a neuron's electrical charge
    action potential
  52. a chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter
  53. a chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
  54. axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
    afferent nerve fibers