Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
2010-10-17 16:55:52
AP Biology

Chapter 6 - Metabolism
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  1. Metabolism
    Totality of an organism's chemical reactions
  2. Catabolic Pathways
    Metbolic pathway that breaks down complex molecules to simpler compounds, releasing energy
  3. Anabolic Pathways
    Metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones
  4. Energy
    Capacity to do work
  5. Kinetic Energy
    Energy of motion
  6. Potential Energy
    Stored energy matter posses because of its location or structure
  7. Chemical Energy
    Potential energy stored in molecules as a result of their atomic arrangement
  8. Thermodynamics
    Study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
  9. First Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy of the universe is constant, it cannot be created or destroyed
  10. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy transfer/transformation makes the universe more disordered or increases its entropy
  11. Free Energy
    Portion of a system's energy that can perform work
  12. Exergonic Reaction
    Reaction with a net release of free energy
  13. Endergonic Reaction
    Reaction that absorbs free enegy from surroundings
  14. Metabolic Disequilibrium
    Reactions in a closed system will eventually reach equilibrium and can do no work
  15. Energy Coupling
    Use of exergonic porcess to drive endergonic process
  16. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    Energy of cells
  17. Phosphorylated
    Recipient of phosphate group from ATP
  18. Catalyst
    Chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
  19. Enzyme
    Catalytic Protein
  20. Activation Energy (Free Energy of Activism)
    Initial investment of energy for reaction, required to break bonds
  21. Substrate
    Reactant enzyme acts on
  22. Active Site
    Region of enzyme that binds to substrate
  23. Induced Fit
    Brings chemical groups of active site to positions that enhance their ability to catalyze reactions
  24. Cofactors
    Non-protein helpers requried by many enzymes for catalytic activity
  25. Coenzyme
    Cofactor that is an organic molecule
  26. Competetive Inhibitors
    Reduce enzyme productivity by blocking substrates from entering active sites
  27. Noncompetetive Inhibitors
    Reduce enzyme productivity by binding to other parts of enzyme, causing the enzyme to change shape
  28. Allosteric Site
    Specific receptor stie on part of enzyme remote from active site
  29. Feedback Inhibition
    Switching off of metabolic pahtway by its end product
  30. Cooperativity
    Amplifies response of enzymes to substrates
  31. Entropy
    Measure of disorder/randomness
  32. Bioenergetics
    Study of how organisms manage their energy resources
  33. Thermal Energy
    Kinetic energy resulting from random movement of molecules
  34. System
    Matter under study
  35. Open System
    Energy/matter can be transfered between the system and its surroundings
  36. Closed System
    Energy/matter cannot be transfered