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2010-10-17 19:16:39
technology terms

test review
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  1. 1. Explain how technology has evolved.
  2. 2. Explain the phases of computer use in education.
    • Phase 1- computer as object of study (1977-1982)
    • Phase 2-Computer as Programming Tool (1983-1990)
    • Phase 3-Computer as Communication Device (1991-1996)
  3. 3. Why do we need technology standards?
  4. 4. How might these standards affect you?
    they raise expectations by creating awareness of what can be accomplished. they provide a common set expectations as well as to clarify and raise the expectations regarding the skills you obtain while developing competency in technology integration within the classroom.
  5. 5. What is technology integration?
    to integrate means to combine two or more things to make a whole; when we integrate technologies into instruction, we make them an integral part of the teaching and learning process. technology integration requires changes to many instructional components including 1)what resources are used 2)what roles the teacher performs 3)what roles students play, as well as 4) the nature of the instructional activities.
  6. 6. What are the stages of technology integration? Where do you fall in the stages of technology integration?
    beginning, developing, proficient, and transformative. by the time we graduate we should be in the proficient stage. currently we should be reaching one of the higher stages.
  7. 1. What is self-directed learning?
    any increase in knowledge, skill, accomplishment, or personal development that an individual selects and brings about by his or her own efforts using any method in any circumstance at any time. you are self directed every time you learn a new skill.
  8. 2. Why is it important?
    it is essential. self directed meta cognitive learners engage in three key processes: planning, monitoring, and evaluating their learning activities.
  9. 1. What is creative thinking?
    when you are able to generate a large number of original ideas, when you can determine which of those ideas are the best ones to use. creative thinkers rely on a combination of their knowledge of the content domain, heuristic knowledge, learning strategies, meta cognitive strategies. Creative thinking involves higher-order thinking which is defined as complex thinking that requires effort and produces valued outcomes. these outcomes are not predictable because the process of higher order thinking is not mechanical.
  10. 2. What is authentic instruction? Why is it challenging?
    the use of real-world issues and problems to facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity.
  11. 3. How does collaboration fit into authentic instruction?
  12. 4. What is learner autonomy?
    The term "learner autonomy" was first coined in 1981 by Henri Holec, the "father" of learner autonomy. Many definitions have since been given to the term, depending on the writer, the context, and the level of debate educators have come to. It has been considered as a personal human trait, as a political measure, or as an educational move. This is because autonomy is seen either (or both) as a means or as an end in education.
  13. 5. What is active learning?
    "tell me, and i will forget. show me, and i may remember. involve me, and i will understand. we learn best by doing.
  14. 6. What are holistic activities?
    authentic instruction is holistic. this principle relates to the fact that we gain important skills, including reading, spelling, math, and even technology skills, when we learn them within the contest of meaningful activities. e: brief lesson how to use punctuation will be more meaningful if they occur within the context of writing a story of an online publication, as opposed to being just one in a series of isolated language arts lessons.
  15. 7. What are complex activities?
    authentic instruction incorporates real world and complex problems. authentic intellectual work has three characteristics: construction of knowledge, disciplined inquiry, and value beyond school.
  16. 8. What are challenging activities?
    authentic instruction is challenging. when we see or hear something that we don't understand, we're motivated to figure it out. once students are engaged, technology can be used to promote and support students' understanding of the content.
  17. 9. How does technology fit into these activities?
    problem-based learning methods, inquiry and discovery methods, inductive methods, role playing, and simulation.
  18. 10. Be familiar with the section on Facilitating creative thinking while meeting content standards (p. 68)
  19. Chapter 4
    • 1. What are computer-based tutorials?
    • complete lesson on a specific topic offered via computer. includes the presentation of content, usually with an example or examples, broken up into discrete modules or sections; some method of review that reinforces or tests understanding of the content in the related module or section; and new examples or content that builds on the instructions already provided. tutorials can be linear or branching.
  20. 2. What are intelligent tutoring system (ITS)?
    a type of educational software that tracks student responses; makes inferences about student strengths and weaknesses; and then tailors feedback, provides additional exercises, or offers hints to students to improve performance. also known as integrated learning software and computer adapted instruction.
  21. 3. What are webquests?
    an organized format for presenting lessons that utilize web resources
  22. 4. What are mindtools?
    computer applications that enable learners to represent, manipulate, or reflect on what they know, rather than to reproduce what someone else knows.
  23. 5. What are databases?
    a type of computer software that organizes information
  24. 6. What are collaborative databases?
    a special type of database that supports a shared process of knowledge building. one example is an online help system in which users can post questions and responses to others queries.
  25. 7. What are wikis?
    page or collection of web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content, using a simplified language. wikis are often used to create collaborative websites and to power community websites.
  26. 8. What are concept maps (give an example of one kind of concept mapping software we have used)?
    inspiration! graphic tools for organizing and representing knowledge
  27. 9. What are simulations and visualization tools?
    simulations are a presentation of simplified versions of phenomena, environments, or processes that allow students to interact with, or manipulate, variables and observe the effects of those manipulations. visualization tools are system that allows learners to picture, or represent, how various phenomena operate within different domains.
  28. 10. What are hypertext and hypermedia?
    hypertext is a non sequential or non linear method for organizing and displaying text, hypermedia is hypertext with media elements including images, sounds, videos, and animation.
  29. 11. What is HTML?
    hypertext markup language, a programming language that provides web browsers with instructions on how to arrange information on a web page.
  30. 12. file transfer protocol (ftp):
    a way to transfer files from one computer to another using various methods, including transfer of files via a web browser.
  31. 13. digital storytelling:
  32. 14. Explain the use of a computer as a collaborative learning tool and conferencing tool.
  33. 15. Weblog (blog) :
    a form of journaling and threaded discussion tool for use on the web
  34. 16. spamdexing:
    practice of developing websites that purposely deceive the user; also known as search engine spamming
  35. 17. typosquatting:
    practice of developing websites with urls slightly different from legitimate website addresses in an attempt to deceive users.
  36. 18. How do you evaluate a website?
  37. 1. Explain the common instructional groupings.
    individual use (a challenge as a teacher will be to provide help when needed., small groups, whole group
  38. 2. When working in groups, how do you ensure that all students participate equally?
    for it to be more effective, it is critical to establish classroom norms that support a culture of collaboration. establish an atmosphere where dominance by a few individuals is not tolerated. take care to ensure that no individual takes a dominant role and no individual takes a completely passive role. assign specific roles and make sure the principles of cooperative learning are followed.
  39. 3. How is the best way to use one computer in a classroom?
    WHOLE GROUP INSTRUCTION! (you can present your ideas on slides, websites, the students can present their projects, demonstrate, and so forth)
  40. 4. If you only have a few computers in your classroom, how can they be used most effectively?
    several students can work on individual projects simultaneously while the rest of the class does some other task or each computer can be assigned to a group of students for small group work.
  41. 5. What are the benefits of students working in small groups around one computer?
    they all get tasks and it teaches them to be responsible.
  42. 6. How can you best support students� use of technology tools before, during and after instruction?
    • before: plan, develop student guidelines, prepare technology
    • during: communicate your expectations of what students should do before, after, and during their computer time before they actually get there. (you can demonstrate what you will be doing that day as well)
    • after: critically evaluate the lessons in order to make them more effective in the future. (keep a journal, make notes on your lesson plans create a series of documents using word processing software)
  43. 1. How can student data be helpful in informing instruction?
    as teachers, it benefits us to have easy and immediate access to the many types of student data that once were found in paper based records stored in disparate locations across the school and district. You can use student data to set goals.
  44. 2. How can you monitor student learning? Be specific and give examples from your textbook.
    while the students are in your class, you will probably have the opportunity to compare their performances on your own classroom assessments with results from external assessments. you should compare student performances on external assessments with the grades received in your class, as well as from previous courses, to determine if students are reaching their academic potential. (You can also monitor the effectiveness of your instruction by observing your students during activities and assessments.
  45. 3. What is universal design in the classroom?
    teachers can remove barriers to learning by providing flexibility in terms of options for materials, methods, and assessments. in the classroom, you have to set goals for your students, create individualized learning,
  46. 4. What are learning goals?
    goals that allow them to obtain the skills and knowledge required by curricula and standards. they should allow students to clearly understand the outcomes (recognize what should be learned), be achievable through a variety of media (provide multiple opportunities for how it can be learned) and communicate the importance of the goal to students (emphasize why the learning is important)
  47. 5. What is individualized learning?
    • � using multiple media and formats to access information, practice skills, and demonstrate mastery
    • � providing students with choices in the media, tools, and context in which the learning will take place
    • � demonstrating concepts and skills through the use of varied models of expert performance to allow students of different abilities to identify with a preferred mode and degree of performance for mastery.
    • � providing multiple examples that tap into different senses
    • � providing opportunities to practice skills with various levels of support and provide ongoing, relevant feedback
    • � including activities with varied levels of difficulty to challenge students at all levels of ability with a variety of engaging materials
  48. 6. Why do you need to know about assistive technologies?
    it is any item, piece of equipment, or product system used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. in order to qualify it is not sufficient for a student to demonstrate or be diagnosed with a definable sensory, physical, mental, or cognitive impairment, but that the special education or related services support that student in participating in educational activities.
  49. 7. What are some computer adaptations for assistive technologies?
    • for keyboard: place large, colored alphabet stikers on the keys, use stuckers, stick on felt or rubber pads, or small buttons to mark keys that students use frequently, create a key guard from a piece of heavy duty cardboard . positioning: chairs, desks, tables, etc. mouse: (same as keyboard) (you can add a button, sticker, pom-pom, etc. You can flip the mouse over so that they can work only on the trackball.
    • lowtech techonologies such as calculators, talking picture frames, spell checkers, timers, and battery adapted toys. mid tech are tape recorders, cd players, portable word processors, leveled augmentative communication devices, and talking dictionaries. high tech (more expensive because they are highly customizable.)
  50. Additional Concepts
    • Know the difference in the Internet and World Wide Web
    • The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.
    • The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.
  51. File sizes http://www.whatsabyte.com/
    • � 1 byte = 1 alphanumeric character such as the letter B or 2.
    • � 1 kilobyte is approximately 1,000 characters which is slightly less than 1 page of typed, double spaced text
    • � 1 megabyte is approximately 1 million characters or 1,000 pages of typed, double spaced text
    • � 1 gigabyte is approximately 1 billion characters or 1 million pages of typed, double-spaced text
    • � 1 terabyte is approximately 1 trillion characters or 1 billion pages of text
  52. Emoticons:
    An emoticon is a textual expression representing the face of a writer's mood or facial expression
  53. File extensions:
    A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate the encoding convention (file format) of its contents.
  54. Flaming:
    Flaming (also known as bashing) is hostile and insulting interaction between Internet users. Flaming usually occurs in the social context of a discussion board, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Usenet, by e-mail or on Video-sharing websites.
  55. Exabyte:
    An exabyte (derived from the SI prefix exa-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one quintillion bytes (short scale). It is commonly abbreviated EB.
  56. Gigobyte:
    The gigabyte (pronounced /'g?g??ba?t, 'd??g-/gig-uh-bahyt, jig- ) is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage. The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units (SI), therefore 1 gigabyte is 1000000000bytes.
  57. Graphics (what are the different kinds):
    In the 1990s, Internet speeds increased, and Internet browsers capable of viewing images were released, the first being Mosaic. Websites began to use the GIF format to display small graphics, such as banners, advertisements and navigation buttons, on web pages. Modern web browsers can now display JPEG, PNG and increasingly, SVG images in addition to GIFs on web pages. SVG, and to some extent VML, support in some modern web browsers have made it possible to display vector graphics that are clear at any size. Plugins expand the web browser functions to display animated, interactive and 3-D graphics contained within file formats such as SWFX3D. and
  58. Netiquette:
    Netiquette (a portmanteau formed from "network etiquette") is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums. These rules were described in IETF RFC 1855.[1]Internet phenomena, the concept and its application remain in a state of flux, and vary from community to community. However, like many
  59. Terrabyte:
    A terabyte is a SI-multiple (see prefix tera) of the unit byte for digital information storage and is equal to 1012 (1 trillion short scale) bytes or 1000 gigabytes. The unit symbol for the terabyte is TB.
  60. Kilobyte:
    The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage or transmission. The prefix kilo means 1000 in the International System of Units (SI), therefore 1 kilobyte is 1000bytes. The recommended unit symbol for the kilobyte is kB or kbyte.
  61. Megabyte:
    The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage or transmission with two different values depending on context: 1048576 bytes (10242) generally for computer memory;[1][2][3] and one million bytes (106, see prefix mega-) generally for computer storage.
  62. Petabyte:
    • A petabyte (derived from the SI prefix peta- ) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one quadrillion bytes (short scale), or 1000 terabytes, or 1,000,000 gigabytes. It is abbreviated PB. The prefix peta- (P) indicates a power of 1000:
    • � 1 PB = 1,000,000,000,000,000 B = 10005 B = 1015 bytes.
  63. Terabyte:
    A terabyte is a SI-multiple (see prefix tera) of the unit byte for digital information storage and is equal to 1012 (1 trillion short scale) bytes or 1000 gigabytes. The unit symbol for the terabyte is TB.
  64. Yottabyte:
    A yottabyte (derived from the SI prefix yotta-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one septillion (one long scale quadrillion or 1024) bytes (one quadrillion gigabytes). It is commonly abbreviated YB.
  65. Zettabyte:
    • A zettabyte (symbol ZB, derived from the SI prefix zetta-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one sextillion (one long scale trilliard) bytes.[1][2][3][4]
    • � 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes = 10007, or 1021.
  66. Be able to put file sizes in order.
    Be able to tell how to check to determine the size of a file