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2010-10-17 20:22:16

Science Chapter 2 Bones Muscles Skin
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  1. What are involuntary muscles?
    They are not under your conscious control, like breathing and digesting
  2. What are Voluntary Muscles?
    The muscles that you control like smiling, moving
  3. Where is the cardiac muscle found?
    It is found in the heart.
  4. Where is the skeletal muscle found?
    It is found attached to the end of bones.
  5. Where is smooth muscle found?
    It is found in many internal organs.
  6. What does the cardiac muscle do and what is it?
    The cardiac muscle helps your heart beat. And it is a muscle that does not get tired, it is an involentary muscle. It is similar to both smooth (becuse it is involuntary) and skeletal muscles (because it is striated).
  7. What does the skeletal muscle do and what is it? What are 2 characteristics?
    • The skeletal muscle controls your body movements, so it is voluntary.
    • They are striated (appear banded/striped)
    • React quickly
    • Tire easily
  8. What does the smooth muscle do and what is it?
    The smooth muscle helps the body move automatically, so it is involuntary.
  9. What do muscles do?
    Muscles make your body move and they control it. When you move your arm you are using your muscles.
  10. How do muscles in your upper arm work together to bend and straighten your lower arm?
    Muscles must work in pairs. The biceps muscle contracts to bend your elbow, lifting your forearm and hand. As the biceps contract, the triceps returns to its original length. Then to straighten the elbow, the triceps muscle contracts. As the triceps contracts to extend the arm, the biceps return to its original length.
  11. How do voluntary and involuntary muscles differ?
    Voluntary muscles are muscles that you control, like giving someone a high-five. When you do that you are using your voluntary muscles to move your arm. Involuntary muscles are muscles that you do not control, like falling asleep. Your body decides when it is going to sleep. These muscles differ because you control voluntary muscles, but involuntary muscles are automatic.
  12. If a tendon is cut, how would that affect the ability to move your finger?
    If your index finger's tendon cut all the way through it would be hard to move it because your skeletal muscle would not be working because it is attached to long tendons. Since your skeletal muscle is attached to tendons and your tendon is cut, you therefore could not move your index finger.
  13. What is a tendon?
    A tendon is a strong connective tissue that is attaches muscles to bones.
  14. 5 Major Functions of the Skeletal System
    • 1. Provides shape & support
    • 2. Lets you move
    • 3. Protects organs
    • 4. Produces blood cells
    • 5. store certain materials until your body needs them.
  15. Backbone is called what and made up of how many small bones?
    Vertebrae, 26
  16. What minerals do bones store?
    Calcium and phosporous, which make bones strong and hard. When the body needs these minerals, the bones release small amounts of them into the blood for use elsewhere.
  17. What are the 2 types of marrow and what do they do?
    • Red marrow - Produces blood cells
    • Yellow marrow - Stores fat for reserve energy

    When you are young, most bones contain red marrow, but as you grow up only the ends of your biggest bones contain red marrow.
  18. What is cartilage?
    A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone. It is replaced with hard bone as you grow.
  19. What is a ligament?
    Strong connective tissue that holds together the bones in movable joints. Cartilage covers the ends of the bones to keep them from rubbing against eachother. A fluid lubricates the ends of the bones so that they move softly over each other.
  20. What is osteoporosis and how do you prevent it?
    • As people get older they lose minerals, causing the bones to become weak and break easily.
    • Regular exercise and a diet with a lot of calcium can help prevent it.
  21. How strong are bones?
    They can absorb more force without breaking than concrete or granite. They are also lightweight - they only make up about 20% of body weight.