Embryology Ch. eight

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Embryology Ch. eight
2010-12-06 01:54:10
Embryology eight basic tissue

tissue 1
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  1. lines the internal and external body surfaces
  2. What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
    • (TAPSS)
    • Tissue absorption
    • protection
    • secretion
    • sensory
  3. Closely grouped cells with little or no intercellular substance or tissue fluid
    epithelial tissue
  4. Are there blood vessels in epithelial tissue?
  5. How does oxygen and nutrition get to epithelial tissue?
    it comes from the connective tissue through diffusion
  6. True or False. ephithelial cells have a very rapid turnover time. They reproduce by mitosis so they can grow back quickly.
  7. name 3 classification types of epithelial tissue?
    • simple epithelium
    • stratified epithelium
    • pseudostratified epithelium
  8. only one layers of cells above the basement membrane
    simple epithelium
  9. multiple layers of cells above the basement membrane
    stratified epithelium
  10. cells look like multiple layers because they are different heights, but each one contacts the basement membrane
    psuedostratified epithelium
  11. What are 3 different shapes that epithelial cells come in?
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
  12. flattened plate-like cells. Cell height is less than the cell width
  13. cube-shaped cells. Cell height is equal to cell width
  14. rectangular or tall cells. cell height is greater than cell width
  15. toughl, fibrous, waterproof protein that blocks bacteria and is resistant to friction, and starts small at the bottom of the layers and moves upward and completely fills up at the end
  16. the tissue always produces keratin because it is in a place of heavy use
  17. the tissue doesn't produce keratin unless it is put under extra stress and needs the protection, then it becomes keratinized
  18. What is an example of a structure in the mouth that gets keratinized?
    linea alba
  19. locations of simple squamous epithelium?
    • lines blood vessels
    • lines lymph vessels
    • lines heart
  20. locationof simple cuboidal epithelium?
    lines salivary glands ducts
  21. location of simple columnar epithelium
    • lines salivary glands ducts
    • inner enamel epithelium
  22. location of psuedostratified epithelium
    lines upper respiratory tract
  23. location of stratified squamous epithelium?
    superficial oral mucosa
  24. stratified epithelium is classified by the_____________layer, which is almost always______________.
    • outermost
    • squamous
  25. location of stratified squamous epithelium?
    superficial skin - epidermis
  26. the velcro between epithelim and connective tissue
    basement membrane
  27. produced by the epithelium and consists of 2 layers
    basal lamina
  28. What are the 2 layers of the basal lamina?
    • lamina lucida
    • lamina densa
  29. loop in the lamina lucida
  30. clear layer of the basal lamina
    lamina lucida
  31. dense layer of the lamina lucida
    lamina dense
  32. layer of the basement membrane that is procuced by the connective tissue, andsists of anchoring collogen fibers that loop into the reticular lamina
    reticular lamina
  33. Order of tissue from superficial to deep including the basement membrane
    epithelium - lamina lucida - lamina densa - reticular lamina - connective tissue
  34. What are the functions of connective tissue?
    • (SAD)
    • support
    • attachment
    • defense
  35. the most common cells in connective tissue, they secrete intercellular substance and various kinds of fibers
  36. What are 3 types of fibers?
    • collagen
    • elastic
    • reticular
  37. very strong, rope-like, strait fibers
    collogen fibers
  38. Where are collagen fibers found?
    • teeth
    • tendons
    • bone
  39. squigly fibers that are able to stretch and then return to their original shape
    elastic fibers
  40. Where are elastic fibers found?
    soft palate
  41. very fine, hair-like fibers, look like net or mesh.
    reticular fibers
  42. Where are reticular fibers found?
    in embryonic structures
  43. the intercellular substance and fibers secreted by the fibroblasts.
  44. the matrix can create what?
    • soft connective tissue
    • firm connective tissue
    • rigid connective tissue
    • fluid connective tissue
  45. Soft tissue types?
    • connective tissue proper
    • loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
    • Specialized connective tissue
    • adipose
    • elastic
  46. just deep to the epithelium, it has 2 layers which are:
    • connective tissue proper
    • loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
  47. cells, fibers, and intercellular substances that are loosely packed with blood vessels and nerves
    loose connective tissue
  48. what is the function of connective tissue papillae? And what type of connective tissue is it made up of?
    • to increase the surface area between the epithelium and the connective tissue
    • made up of loose connective tissue
  49. tightly packed with tissue that consists mainly of protein fibers which make it very strong
    dense connective tissue
  50. very little matrix, just a lot of fat cells packed together
    adipose connective tissue
  51. large number of elastic fibers for stretchy tissues
    elastic connective tissue
  52. What is a type of firm connective tissue?
  53. firm and non-calcified tissue, no blood vessels or nerve supply
  54. This type of connective tissue;
    forms the template of the skeleton - to be later mineralized
    cushions bones in joints
    structural support for soft tissues (i.e. the ear)
  55. connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage, provides the blood and nerve supply for cartilage
  56. Why does cartilage repair so slowly?
    because it doesn't have it's own blood supply
  57. produce cartilage matrix and get caught in the matrix (similar to cementocytes)
  58. The small space that surrounds each chondrocyte
  59. what is a type of rigid connective tissue?
  60. What 5 layers make up the macroscopic bone?
    • bone marrow
    • endosteum
    • cancellous bone
    • compact bone
    • periosteum
  61. innermonst part of the bone where blood cells are produced
    bone marrow
  62. lines the bone marrow, similar to perichondrium
  63. surrounds the bone marrow, it is spongy and forms a lattice called trabeculae which you can see radiographically
    cancellous bone
  64. surrounds the cancellous bone, it is very dense
    compact bone
  65. double layered connective tissue sheath that surround the entire bone. The outer layer contains blood vessels and nerves, the inner most layer contains bone forming cells
  66. bone forming cells
  67. What structures make up the microscopic bone?
    • haversian canal
    • osteocyte
    • calcium hydroxyapatite
  68. canal in the microscopic bone for the blood vessels and nerves
    Haversian canal
  69. surround the haversian canal and secrete a matrix called osteoid
  70. the osteoid will calcify in sheets called what?
  71. After we lay_____ to_______ layers of lamellae, we have an osteon.
    • 5
    • 20
  72. Why does bone repair quickly?
    because each osteon has its own blood supply (the osteons group together to form bone)
  73. inorganic substance in crystalline formation that mineralizes the bone
    calcium hydroxyapatite
  74. how much bone is mineralized? How much enamel is mineralized?
    • 50%
    • 98%
  75. What is an example of a fluid connective tissue?
  76. 3 substances that make up blood
    • plasma
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
  77. fluid substance in the blood that carries everything
  78. substance in the blood that carries the oxygen
    red blood cells
  79. substance in the blood that functions as an immune response
    white blood cells
  80. What type of tissue is capable of contraction?
    muscle tissue
  81. voluntary muscles controlled by the somatic nervous system. Striated muscle
    skeletal muscle
  82. involuntary muscles controlled by the autonomic nervous system. appears smooth
    smooth muscle
  83. involuntary muscle controlled by the autonomic nervous system and are inerconnected to cause synchronized contraction (heart beat) striated muscle with inercollated discs
    cardiac muscle
  84. the functional cellular component of the nervous system
  85. a bundle of neurons
  86. junction between two neurons where impulses are transmitted
  87. sensory nerve that carries information the brain (from body to brain)
  88. motor nerve that carries commands from the brain to the body