Psych test 2

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Psych test 2
2010-10-17 22:32:19

ch 2 and ch 13
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  1. what is biological psychology?
    study of biological processes and behaviors
  2. what is neuroscience
    study of the nervous system
  3. what is a neuron
    communicates through the nervous system
  4. what are glial cells
    provide nutrition, removes dead neurons
  5. what are sensory neurons
    convey info, such as light, sound and touch
  6. what are motor neurons
    convey info to muscles for movement
  7. what are interneurons
    connects one neuron to another

    (communicates from one neuron to another)
  8. what is the cell body
    provides energy and nutrients for the neuron
  9. what are dendrites
    small hairs attached to cell body that receive info, from other neurons
  10. what are axons
    long tube that carries info, to muscles, glands and other parts of the body
  11. what is the myelin sheath
    insulates the axon to increase communication speed
  12. what is action potiential
    brief electrial impulse that transmits information along the axon
  13. what is stimulus threshold
    minimum level required to activate a neuron
  14. what is resting potiential
    state in which neuron is ready activate if sufficant stimulus is received
  15. what is all or none law
    sufficient stimulation has to happen for the action potiential to take place
  16. what is synapsse
    point of communication between neurons
  17. what is synaptic gap
    tiny space between the axon terminal and dendrite of an adjoining neuron
  18. what is the axon terminal
    branches at the end of axon with tiny pouches and synaptic vesicles
  19. what are synaptic vesicles
    tiny pouches at the end of an axon, contains neruotransmitters
  20. what is a neurotransmitter
    chemical messages sent by neurons.
  21. what is synaptic transmission
    process by which neurotransmitters affect other neurons
  22. what is reuptake
    recycling of neurotransmitters that failed to attach to recepter cite
  23. what is acetycholine
    learning, memory, muscle contractions,
  24. what is dopamine
    movement, thought processes, rewarding sensations
  25. what is serotonin
    emotional states, sleep
  26. what is GABA
    inhibition of brain activity
  27. what are endorphins
    pain perception, positive emotions
  28. the brain and spinal cord are part of what system
    central nervous system
  29. the brain and spinal cord is surrounded by what
    cerebrospinal fluid to protect the brain from being jarred
  30. the spine is surrounded by what
    spinal column
  31. what is the nervous system
    body network divided into central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
  32. what is the peripheral nervous system
    all nerves laying outside of CNS (somatic nervous system)
  33. what are spinal reflexes
    simple automatic behavior processed in the spinal cord
  34. what is the autonomic nervous system
    regulates heartbeat, breathing, and digestion
  35. what is the endocrine system
    made up of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones
  36. what are hormones
    regulate growth, metabolism, digestion adn sexual development
  37. what is the pituitary gland
  38. what are the adrenal glands
    regulates stress. adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex
  39. what are gonads
    sex organs, ovaries in women, testes in men
  40. name parts of the brain
    • medulla
    • forebrain
    • cerebral cortex
    • cerebral hemispheres
    • corpus callosum
    • temporal lobes
    • occipital lobes
    • parietal lobes
  41. what is stress
    negative, emotional state occuring in response to events that are percieved as taxing or exceeding a persons resources or ability to cope
  42. what is health psychology
    the branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors
  43. what is biopsychosocial model
    the belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
  44. what are stressors
    events or situations that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging
  45. what are daily hassles
    everyday minor events that annoy and upset people
  46. what is conflict
    a situation in which a person feels pulled between two or more opposing desires motives, or goals
  47. approach/approach
    2 appealing decisions
  48. avoidance/avoidance
    2 unappealing decisions
  49. approach/avoidance
    1 appealing 1 unappealing decision
  50. fight or flight response
    a rapidly occuring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people either to fight or take flight from an immefiate threat
  51. what are catecholamines
    hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal; include adrenaline and noradrenaline
  52. what are corticosteroids
    hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the bodys response to long-term stressors
  53. what is the immune system
    body system that produces specialized white blood cells that protect the body from viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells
  54. what are lympocytes
    specialized white blood cells taht are responsible for immune responses
  55. what are psychoneuroimmunology
    an interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system
  56. what is the optimistic explanatory style
    accounting for negative events or situations with external, unstable, & specific explanations
  57. what is pessimistic explanatory style
    accounting for negative events or situations with internal stable and global explanations
  58. what is acculturative stress
    stress of moving to a different state or country and adapting to that culture
  59. what are the stages of general adaption syndrome
    alarm stage, resistance stage, exhaustion
  60. what is social support
    the resouces provided by other people in times of need
  61. what is coping
    behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors; involves our efforts to change circumstances, or our interpretation of cirumstances, to make them more favorable and less threatening
  62. what is problem-focus coping
    coping efforts primarily aimed @ directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor
  63. what is emotional-focus coping
    coping efforts primarily aimed at relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation
  64. what are the ways to minimize the efforts of stress
    • 1. avoid or minimize the use of stimulants
    • 2. exercise regularly
    • 3. get enough sleep
  65. what is the temporal lobe responsible for
  66. what is the occipital lobe responsible for
  67. what is the parietal lobe responsible for
    sensory functions
  68. what is the frontal lobe responsible for
    speech and memory functions, thinking, emotional control
  69. what is the medulla responsible for
    breathing and circulation