Anthro Exam 2
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Who said there were 4 races?
What four races did Frederick Blumenback come up with?
Caucasian African Asian Native American
What was Lewis Henry Morgan's idea of Unilineal Evolution?
- Cultures evolve from lower forms to higher forms
- Tried to understand the difference of being born in different places
- Used European immigrants measured heads
What did Robert Lewinskin do?
Discovered that race only accounted for only 5-10% of genetic diversity
What's a cline?
A gradual change in some phenotypical characteristic from one population to the next
What are the 3 stages of life?
How long does prenatal last?
9 months split into 3 trimesters
Stages of post natal
Neonatal 1 month. Infancy goes to 3 years. Childhood 3-7. Juvenile puberty. Adolescence 5-10 years after puberty
What can be used to determine age?
What are the adult stages?
Aging and Senescence, biological process characterized by a reduction in homeostasis
Problems with long childhood?
Lots of food need a division of labor
What's Genetic Adaptation?
What are Developed Mental Adaptations?
Body adapts to birth enviroment
What are Physiological Adaptations?
Adjusting to enviroments
What are Behavioral Adaptations?
Clothing and shelter
What's Bergmann's Rule?
Heat adapted mammals will have a higher surface area
What's Allen's rule?
Heat adapted animals have longer limbs
What's the best predictor of skin color?
How close the person lives to the equator
Why does the body need UV radiation?
To synthesize DNA
When an animal is unable to breathe in adequate oxygen
What is the thrifty gene?
Pima and Tohono O'odham tribes have it. It means they have trouble with fat and now 50% have diabetes
What makes a primate?
- Mammals. Arboreal Adaptation. Dietary Plasticity. Parental Involvement
- Powerful grips and opposable thumbs
what are other primate characteristics?
- Enhanced touch and vision
- Reduced sense of smell and hearing.
- Dietary plasticity
Old world monkeys and apes Dentition
New World Monkeys Dentition
T/F Female primates give birth more than most mammals?
What are promisians?
Lemurs, Lorises, Tarsiers and Galagos
What are anthropoids?
All monkeys and apes
What are the habitats of Promisians and Anthropoids?
Tropical or Semi Tropical Regions
What is the locomotion of Anthropoids?
Quadrapedal. Brachiation or Semi Brachiation
Where do Lemurs live?
Madagascar + other coastal islands
Where do lorises live?
India Sri Lanka S.E Asia and Africa
Where do Galago's live?
Sub Saharan Africa
Where do Tarsiers Live?
Islands in S.E Asia
What are Platyrhines?
New world flat nose monkeys
What are Catarhines?
Down Facing Nostrils old world monkeys
Facts on Old World Monkeys
- Ischial Collosites(butt pads)
- Well developed balance and communication
- Females of many show estrus
- Cercopithecines(cheek pouches)
- Colobines(Leaf eaters)
New World Monkeys
- Collitrichids and Cebids
- Tropical Forests of S. Mexico and Central and South America
Gibbons and Siamangs
Tropical S.E Asia
Indonesian Island of Borneo and Sumatra
Chimpanzees and Bonobos
Facts About Primate Societies
- Are complexly organized
- Include long term social relations
- Communicate with vocalization
Primate Reproductive Strategies
- Males Compete for mates, causes sexual dimorphism
- Females compete for resources
What are fossils?
Fossils are the remains of organisms that are chemically changed into rock
Why are fossils important?
- Phylogeny-The evolutionary relationships of biological organisms
- Paleontology-The study of extinct life forms
- Taphonomy-The study of what happens to an organisms remains after death
Mapped the Neanderthal Genome
Evolution is gradual and continuous
Long periods of stasis alternating with short periods of rapid evolution
Limitations of Fossilization?
- Variations in Preservation
- Great Time Scale
- Accuracy of Dating Techniques
Three Eras of time in evolution
- Relative-producing a date in relation to other materials
- Absolute-Methods that give a numerical time frame
Materials found in the same strata or layer are close to the same age
Sterio's law of Superpositon
Oldest layer of strata at the bottom
What chemical can be used to find the date?
Bio stratigraphic dating
uses the association of fossils in strata to determine each layers approximate age
Using Lithics like pottery
Tree ring dating made by A.E Douglas
Radio Carbon Dating
Willard Libby. Uses the decay of carbon-14. Uses to date objects up to 70,000 years
Radio Potassium Dating
Measure potassium to argon 49. Can be used to 200,000 years
- Amino Acid
- Fission Track
- Electron spin resonance
- High costs
- Limits to certain techniques
- Having the right material
How to reconstruct climate
Measures oxygen isotopes 18+16 in deep sea sediments+ice cores
Chemical analysis of bone+teeth
Plants use C4 or C3 photosynthesis
- C4 plants wet environment
- C3 plants open grassland tropical savannah
Why did primates emerge?
- 1900's Smith and Jones Arboreal Hypothesis
- 1970s Matt Cartmill Visual Predation Hypothesis Developed traits to hunt small animals
- Randall Sussmen Angiosperm Radiation Primates develop in order to exploit fruits
- Plesialapoforms Highly diverse group of mammals that may have lead to us.
- Problems lack certain key characteristics
- Euprimates first true primates
- Adapids-Day time with long snouts
- Omomyids-nocturnal like tarsiers
- Fayum Depression-Egypt-heartland of ancestors
- Fayum Primates-Oligopithecids-Parapithecids
- -Propliopithecids most like us
- Aegyptopithecus-one of the most likely ancestors to catarhines
- Branisella-27mya South Africa Platyrhines
- Apes leave africa
- Dryopethicus-Europe 13mya
- Sirapithecus-Asia 12-8mya
- Apes decline monkeys rise
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