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Methods of combining instruments of different kinds in a chord. Know the advantages and disadvantages of each method as applied to various orchestral instruments.
juxtaposition, interlocking, enclosed, overlapping
The current and usually preferable practice of spacing upper woodwinds: open or closed. Know the exceptions to this practice.
closed, octave gap
The better choice (according to Kennan) of assigning instrumental colors when a progression involves both stationary and moving parts.
stationary parts should have one color, moving parts another color
The better choice for bass of the woodwind section: Bass Clarinet or Bassoon.
In the brass section the instrument that should be doubled at mf or louder.
The minimum number of violins or violas to sound like a section.
When filling in brass section chords with woodwinds, what dynamic levels will produce the best balance?
The choices of instrumental tone color that will accentuate dissonance.
Timbre qualities of doubling woodwinds with brass.
makes the brass less transparent and brilliant in timbre
Various ways to refigure and re-space piano arpeggios and other figures for strings.
divide the rearrangement among two or more instruments,
Best way to render broken octaves (in piano music) for strings.
tremolo with doubling at the octave
How to handle rolled piano chords.
omit or played pizzicato in arpeggiated fashion
In the case of a piano passage that has a pronounced soloistic or cadenza-like character and encompasses a wide range of notes, what is the best way to transcribe it for orchestra according to Kennan?
give it to a solo instrument and alter the music to retain its overall musical effect
In full-instrument scores of the common-practice period what orchestral section (woodwinds, brass or strings) rested the most; the least?
brass most, strings least
How to best achieve the effect of a melody standing out clearly from the background music.
give melody to one color, background to another
Kennan’s comments on the effect of doubling woodwinds at the unison.
- flute and oboe - oboe dominates but quality is softened
- flute and clarinet - warm, round tone, not strong above middle C
- oboe and clarinet - mixes oboe tang and clarinet mellowness
- clarinet and bassoon - rich, somber if clarinet is low
Kennan’s comments on the effect of doubling the flute and bassoon at two octaves.
good, omission of the middle octave makes for a particular effect
Kennan’s comments on the effect of doubling winds with strings, particularly the benefit of doubling bassoon with cellos or violas and the benefit of combining English horn with violas.
- bassoons are good for added body and rhythmic definition
- horn provides poignant and attractive tone
Kennan’s warning about the constant use of mixed or composite colors.
makes a score sound nondescript and opaque
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