Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people in order to accomplish organizational goals.
First line managers
The lowest level of management who manage the work of nonmanagerial employees and typically are directly or indirectly involved with producing the organization�s products or servicing the organization�s customers.
Managers between the lowest level and top levels of the organization who mange the work of first line managers.
Managers at or near the upper levels of the organization structure whoare responsible for making organizationwide decsions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organization.
Coordination and oversight of the work activities of others so that their activities are completely efficiently and effectively.
Doing things right or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs
Doing right things or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained.
A management function that involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities
A management function that involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals
A management function that involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals
A management function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance
Specific categories of managerial behavior
Managerial roles involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
Managerial roles that involve collecting, receiving and disseminating information.
Managerial roles that revolve around making choices.
Job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform work tasks.
The ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.
The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.
A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.
Universality of Management
The reality that management is needed in all type sand sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels, in all organizational areas, and in organizations no matter the location.
Omnipotent View of Management
The view that managers are directly responsible for an organization�s success or failure.
Symbolic View of Management
The view that much of an organization�s success or failure is due to external forces outside manager�s control.
The shared values, principles, traditions and ways of things that influence the way organizational members act.
Organizational cultures in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared.
The process that helps employees adapt to the organization�s culture.
A feature of a culture where organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of community.
Factors and forces outside an organization that affect the organization�s performance.
External forces that have a direct impact on managers� decisions and actions and are directly relevant to the achievement of an organization�s goals.
Broad external conditions that many affect an organization.
The degree of change and complexity in an organization�s environment.
The number of components in an organization�s environment and the extent of the organization�s knowledge about those components.
Viewing the world solely through one�s own eyes and perspectives and not recognizing that others have different ways of living and working. Parochialism leads to an inability to recognize differences between people.
The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country.
The view that managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business.
A world oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe.
European Union (EU)
An economic and political partnership of 27 democratic European countries created as a unified economic and trade entity. Three additional countries have applied for membership.
A single common European currency.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
An agreement among the Mexican, Canadian, and US governments that has eliminated barriers to trade.
Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN)
A trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
A global organization of 153 countries that deals with the rules of trade among nations.
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
A broad term that refers to any and all types of international companies that maintain operations in multiple countries.
An international company that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country.
An international company that centralizes management and other decisions in the home country.
Translational (or borderless) organization
A type of international company in which artificial geographic barriers are eliminated.
Global Sourcing (or global outsourcing)
Purchasing materials or labor from around the world based on lowest cost.
Making products domestically and selling them abroad.
Acquiring products made abroad and selling them domestically.
An agreement in which an organization gives another organization the right to make or sell its products, using technology or product specifications.
An agreement in which an organization gives another organization the tight to use its name and operating methods.
A partnership between an organization and a foreign company partner(s) in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building production facilities.
Server software that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content using any Web browser.
Web logs or online diaries
A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose.
A direct investment in a foreign country that involves setting up a separate and independent facility or office.
Free market Economy
An economic system in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector
An economic system in which all economic decisions are planned by a central government
The values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and beliefs about what is important.
The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program - a program that studies cross-cultural leadership behaviors
A firm�s engaging in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities.
The view that management�s only responsibility is to maximize profits.
The view that management�s social responsibility goes beyond making profits and includes protecting and improving society�s welfare.
A firm�s engaging in social actions in response to some popular social need.
A business�s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society.
Applying social criteria (screens) to investment decisions.
Principles, values, and beliefs that define what is right and what is wrong behavior
Basic convictions about what is right and what is wrong.
A personality measure of the strength of a person�s convictions.
Locus of control
A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe they control their own fate.
A form of management in which an organization�s values guide employees in the way they do their jobs.
Code of Ethics
A formal statement of an organization�s primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow.
An individual who raises ethical concerns or issues to others.
A choice from two or more alternatives
An obstacle that makes achieving a desired goal or purpose difficult
Criteria that define what�s important or relevant in resolving a problem.
Rational Decision making
A type of decision making in which choices are logical and consistent and maximize value.
Decision making that�s rational but limited (bounded) by an individual�s ability to process information.
To accept solutions that are �good enough�
Escalation of Commitment
An increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been a poor decision.
Intuitive Decision Making
Making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgment.
A straightforward, familiar and easily defined problem
A repetitive decision that can be handled using a routine approach
A series of sequential steps used to respond to a well-structured problem
An explicit statement that tells managers what can or cannot be done.
A guideline for making decisions
A problem that is new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete.
A unique and nonrecurring decision that requires a custom-made solution
A situation in which a decision maker can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known.
A situation in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes.
A situation in which a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available
Business Performance Management Software
IT software that provides key performance indicators to help managers monitor efficiency of projects and employees. - Also known as corporate management software.
Linear thinking style
A decision style characterized by a person�s preference for using external data and facts and processing this information through rational, logical thinking.
Nonlinear thinking style
A decision style characterized by a person�s preference for internal sources of information and processing this information with internal insights, feeling and hunches.
Rule so thumb that managers use to simplify decision making
Arranging and structuring work to accomplish an organization�s goals.
The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization.
The visual representation of an organization�s structure
Creating or changing an organization�s structure
Dividing work activities into separate job tasks
The basics on which jobs are grouped together
Work teams composed of individuals from various functional specialties
Chain of command
The line of authority extending from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels which clarifies who reports to whom
The rights in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it.
The obligation or expectation to perform any assigned duties.
Unity of command
The management principle that each person should report to only one manager.
Span of control
The number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively manage.
The degree to which decision making is concentrated at upper levels of the organization
The degree to which lower level employees provide input or actually make decisions.
Giving employees more authority to make decisions.
How standardized an organization�s jobs are and the extent to which employees� behavior is guided by rules and procedures.
An organizational design that�s rigid and tightly controlled.
An organizational design that�s highly adaptive and flexible
The production of items in units or small batches
The production of items in large batches
The production of items in continuous processes.
An organizational design with low departmentalization, wide spans of control, central authority, and little formalization
An organizational design that groups together similar or related occupational specialties.
An organizational structure made up of separate, semiautonomous units or divisions
An organizational structure in which the entire organization is made up of work groups of teams
An organizational structure that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects.
An organizational structure in which employees continuously work on projects
An organization whose design is not defined by or limited to the horizontal, vertical and external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure.
An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and outside specialist temporarily hired as needed to work on projects.
An organization that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes.
An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt and change