Chapter 4 - THE CELL

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Chapter 4 - THE CELL
2010-10-18 16:00:08

DNA, Chromosomes, & Genomes
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  1. 1.5 turns of DNA is made up of _____nucleotide pairs spaces at ____nm
    • 10.4 nucleotide pairs
    • 3.4 nm
  2. The human genome consists of approximately ______ nucleotides that is distributed amongst ____ different chromosomes
    • 3,200,000,000 nucleotides
    • 24 different chromosomes
  3. The complex of DNA, histones, and nonhistone proteins found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is:
    A) chromosomes
    B) condensin
    C) chromatin
    D) histone chaperone
    C) chromatin
  4. The complex of proteins involved in chromosome condensation prior to mitosis:
    A) chromatin
    B) nonhistone proteins
    C) histone complex
    D) condensin
    D) condensin
  5. Humans have ___ genes versus bacteria that has about ___ genes.
    • ~25,000 genes
    • ~500 genes
  6. In addition to introns and exons, genes associate with ____ ____ _____ which is responsible for expressing the gene in the proper cell and turning it on or off at the proper time.
    regulatory DNA sequences
  7. ___% of DNA codes for proteins in a human genome.
    A) 80%
    B) 5%
    C) 47%
    D) 19%
    B) 5%
  8. During ___ chromosomes are replicated, and during ____they become highly condense and known as _________.
    A) interphase; mitosis; mitotic chromosomes
    B) interphase; mitosis; interphase chromosomes
    C) mitosis; interphase; interphase chromosomes
    D) mitosis; interphase; mitotic chromosomes
    A) interphase; mitosis; mitotic chromosomes
  9. Each DNA molecule that forms a linear chromosome must contain:
    1. __________
    2. __________
    3. __________
    • a centromere
    • two telomeres
    • replication origins
  10. Human centromeres contain up to _________ nucleotide pairs
    100,000 nucleotide pairs
  11. In eukaryotic chromosome packing, the "string" represents ____, and each "bead" represents ______?
    A) histone; molecule of DNA
    B) DNA; nucleosome core particle
    C) DNA; H1 histone
    D) DNA; chromatin remodeling complex
    B) DNA ; nucleosome core particle
  12. How many molecules of each histone is present in the histone octamer? Name all histones and state the length of nucleotide pairs in the DNA.
    A) 1; H1 H2A H2B H3 H4; 10
    B) 1; H2A H2B H3 H4; 147
    C) 2; H1 H2A H2B H3 H4; 10
    D) 2; H2A H2B H3 H4; 147
    D) 2; H2A H2B H3 H4; 147

    Explanation: There are 2 molecules of each H2A, H2B, H3, H4 with a length of 147 nucleotide pairs in the wrapped DNA.
  13. Each nucleosome core particle is separated from the next by a region of ______
    linker DNA
  14. A diploid human cell with 6,400,000,000 nucleotide pairs contains ~__ million nucleosomes.
  15. Each core histone has a __________ _____ region called a _______ ____ that is formed by ____ alpha helices that are connected by __ loops.
    • structural motif
    • histone fold
    • three
    • two
  16. Eukaryotic cells contain a variety of ATP-dependent _________ __________ complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to catalyze nucleosome sliding, making the DNA (available/not available) to other proteins in the cell.
    • chromatin remodeling
    • available