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Business and Organizational customers
Any buyers who buy for resale or to produce other goods and services.
Producers of goods & services
manufacturers, farmers, real estate, developers, hotels, banks, even doctors, and lawyers.
wholesalers and retailers
federal agencies in the US and other countriesas well as state and local governments
national organizzations like the Red Cross and Girl Scouts as well as local organizations like museums and churches
Buying influence: Users
perhaps production line workers or their supervisors
Buying influence: Influencers
engineering or R&D people who help write specifications or supply information for evaluating alternatives
Buying Influence: Buyers
the purchasing managers who have the responsiblity for working with suppliers and arranging the terms of the sale
Buying Influence: Deciders
people in the organization who have the power to select or approve the supplier often a purchasing manager but perhaps top management for larger purchases.
Buying Influence: Gatekeepers
peopel who control the flow of information within the organizaton-perhaps a purchasing manager who sheilds users or other deciders. ex: receptionists, secretaries, research assistants
occurs when a customer organization has a new need and wants a great deal of infomation.
a routine repurchase that may have been made many times before.
the in-between process where some review of the buying situation is done -- though not as much as in new-task buying.
terms of sale offered by the supplier in response to the purchase specifications posted by a buyer.
Negotiated contract buying
agreeing to contracts that allow for changes in the purchase arrangements.
contract with an outside firm to produce goods or services rather than to produce them internally.
Marketing Research & steps
procedurers that develop and analyze new information about a market
- 1. Define problem
- 2. Analyze situation
- 3. Gather problem-specific data
- 4. Interpret the data
- 5. Solve the problem
Marketing Information System (MIS)
an organized way of continually gathering, accessing, and analyzing information that marketing managers need to make ongoing decisions.
a place where databases are stored so that they are available when needed.
Decision Support System (DSS)
a computer program that makes it easy for a marketing manager to get and us information as he or she is making decisions
a system for linking computers within a company
decision-making approach that focuses on being objective and orderly in testing ideas before accepting them.
Information specifically collected to solve a current problem
information that has been collected or published already
seeks in-depth, open-ended responses, not yes or no answers.
Seeks structured responses that can be summarized in numbers, like percentages, averages, or other statistics.
set of all product lines and individual products that a firm sells.
a set of individual products that are closely related
the use or a name, term, symbol, or design--or combination--to identify a product
a word, letter, or group of words or letters
words, symbols, or marks that are legally registered for use by a single compnay
how well customers recognize and accept a company's brand
5 levels of brand farmiliarity
- 1. Rejection
- 2. Non-recognition
- 3. Recognition
- 4. Preference
- 5. Insistence
means final consumers don't recognize a brand at all
means that potential customers won't buy a brand unless its image is changed.
customers remember the brand
the target customers usually choose the brand over other brands
customers insist on a firm's branded product and are willing to search for it
the value of a brand's overall strenght in the market
same brand name for several products
involves the promoting, protecting, and enhancing the product
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