_______ _________ - characteristic structure of motility found in spirochetes
Other bacteria, such as Spirochetes, have a specialized type of flagellum called an "________ _____" that is located in the periplasmic space, the rotation of which causes the entire bacterium to move forward in a corkscrew-like motion
A ________ is a tail-like projection that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and functions in locomotion.
An ________ is not a reproductive structure but rather a resistant, dormant survival form of the organism
_________:Resistant, dormant survival spores produced by several genera of bacteria.
_________ produced by the genus Bacillus, the genus Clostridium, and several other genera of bacteria including Desulfotomaculum, Sporosarcina, Sporolactobacillus, Oscillospira, and Thermoactinomyces.
_________ are quite resistant to high temperatures
(including boiling), most disinfectants, low energy radiation, drying, etc.
Bacillus species are obligate aerobes (def)
that live in soil while Clostridium species are obligate anaerobes (OBLIGATE ANAEROBE:Grows only in the absence of oxygen.) often found as normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract in animals.
bacteria form ______ endospore per cell, thus not a means of reproduction.
_________ are external viscous structure found on the surface of baceria consisting of a sticky glycocalyx (polysaccharides) coating.
___________-An extensive bacterial glycocalyx that remains attached to the cell wall. May enable the
bacterium to adhere to environmental surfaces and/or resist phagocytic engulfment.
_________used as protection layer agains water and nutrient loss
capslus __________ bacterial adherence to surfaces such as certain streptococci that cause dental plague, the slime layer allows them to stick to teeth
resistant to spores is due to thick _________ layer forming outside the membrane
high concentration of _______ ion and and mycolic acid of endospores.
2. Name 2 pathogenic acid-fast bacteria and
state the infection each causes.
note :nocardia cause lung and skin infections
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis)
Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy)
nocardia cause lung and skin infections
__________:A tubular protein structure extending from a bacterial surface used for attachment to environmental surfaces or cells.
There are two basic types of pili:
short attachment pili, also known as ________, that are usually quite numerous .
2) long conjugation pili, that are very few in number.
several gram negative bacteria have many tiny hair like structure called ________. they are used for ___________ rather then for movement.
______ are similar to fimbriae but each bacterium hs normally one or two, and there are many type of pilli.
__________ pili is used as DNA tranfer tubes from one bacteruim to another suhc as antibiotic resistance genes, these are sometimes known as sex pili.
___________ pili, these are used by the bacterium to adhere to surfaces. these contribute to pathogenecity of bacteria by enhancing colonization on surfaces.
bacterial such as the genera clostrida and bacillus form ________ when nutrients are depleted in the enviroment
_______ bacteria are difficult to see with light microscope because of poor contrast.
the advantage of using _________ sample is that they are viable and one can study morphology and motility.
the disadvantages are the preparations are short term and poor contrast in bright field microscopy with _________samples.
________ bacteria helps with poor contrast. these are easy to see.
disadvantage of staning is
the bacteria is : _____
their morphology is _______
and there is no _________