Anthro Midterm#1

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Anthro Midterm#1
2010-10-18 08:09:22
Cultural Anthropology

Help study for anthro midterm from chapter 1
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  1. Anthropology
    the academic discipline that studies all humanity
  2. 5 Principal subfields of Anthropology
    • 1) Archaeology
    • 2) Biological Anthro
    • 3) Cultural Anthro
    • 4) Anthropological Linguistics
    • 5) Applied Anthro
  3. Archaeology
    investigates the human past through the excacation and analysis of material remains
  4. Prehistoric Archaeology
    Study of ancient, preliterate cultures- those that never kept writen records of their customs, activities, and beliefs
  5. Historic Anthropology
    • study of those who kept written records of beliefs, activities and customs.
    • journals, diaries, land records, tax statements are all used to study the culture
  6. cultural resource management
    locate sites of prehistoric and historic significance evaluate their importance, and make recommendations about total or partial preservation
  7. Contract Archaeology
    companies bid competitivly for the privilege of locating, excavating, and reporting on sites affected or destroyed by construction
  8. Biological Anthropology
    • also called physical
    • focuses on areas such as the anatomy and behavior of monkeys and apes, the physical variations between different human populations and the biological evolution of the human species
  9. Primatology
    study the evolution, anatomy, adaptation, and social behavior of primates, the taxonomic order to witch humans belong
  10. Human Variation
    • type of biological anthropology
    • studies how and why human populations vary physically due to hereditary, genetic factors
  11. Paleoanthropology
    investigates human biological evolution
  12. forensic anthropology
    work for or consult with law enforcement agencies, where they help identify human skeletal remains
  13. Cultural Anthropology
    • also called social anthro, sociocultural anthro, and ethnography
    • study of contemporary and historically recent human societies and cultures
  14. 5 overall objectives for Cultural anthropologists
    • study firsthand and report about the ways of living particular human groups
    • compare diverse cultures in the search for general principles that might explain human ways of living
    • understand how various dimensions of human life relate to one anotherin particular cultures
    • analyze the causes and consequences of cultural change
    • enhance public understanding and appreciation of cultural differences and multicultural diversity
  15. fieldwork
    method used to collect information about a particular culture
  16. Ethnography
    a written account of how a single human population lives
  17. Linguistics
    • study of human language
    • describe and analyze the sound patterns and combinations, words, meanings, and sentence structures of human language
  18. anthropological linguistics
    concerned with the complex relationships between language and other aspects of human behavior and thought
  19. Applied Anthropology
    methods, theories, concepts, and insights to help public institutions or private interprises deal with practical, real world problems
  20. Practicing Anthropology
    includes professional anthropologists who hold jobs outside of universities or other educational institutions
  21. Developmental Anthropology
    an area in which anthropologists apply their expertise to the solutions of practical human problems usually in a thrid world country
  22. Educational anthropology
    some roles include adcising in bilingual education, conducting detailed observations of classroom interactions, training personnel in multicultural issues, and adapting teaching styles to local customs and needs
  23. Corporate Anthropology
  24. they watch how employees interact with one another, analyze how workers understand the capabilities of office machines, study how the attitudes and styles of the managers affect worker performance, and perform a variety of other information-gathering and analysis tasks
  25. Medical Anthropology
    investigate the complex interactions among human health, nutrition, social environment, and cultural beliefs and practices
  26. Applied anthropologists trained to do two things well
    • first, to observe, record, and analyze human behavior in very diverse settings
    • second, to look for and understand the cultural assumptions, values, and beliefs that underlie that behavior
  27. Globalization
    the intermixing and migrations of people with diverse homelands, the multinational reach of communications media, the movement of production and services to overseas locales, the increase in international travel and tourism, and so forth
  28. 3 Different Approaches when studying culture
    • holistically
    • comparatively
    • relativistically
  29. essence of holistics perspective
    look for connections and interreltionships and try to understand parts in context of the whole
  30. essence of Comparative perspective
    do not make generalizations about humans without considering the full range of cultural diversity
  31. cultural relativism
    no culture -taken as a whole- is inherenity superior or inferior to any other
  32. Ethnocentrism
    belief that the moral standards, manners, attitudes, and so forth of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures
  33. essential point to cultural relativism
    in studying another culture, do not ecaluate the behabior of its members by the standards and values of your own culture
  34. relativism is a mediological principle
    refers to an outlook that is essential for maximum objectivity and understanding when studying a people whose way of life differs from their own
  35. Three Values of Anthropology
    • First anthropology helps us understand the biological, technological, and cultural development of humanity over long time spans
    • Second value of anthropology is that it teaches the importance of understanding and appreciation cultural diversity
    • thirdly because of its insistence on studying humanity from a comparative perspective, anthropology helps us to understand our own individual lives