A & P Respiratory System
Card Set Information
A & P Respiratory System
The respiratory system is divided into ___ tracts, what are they
Upper respiratory tract is located where?
Outside the thorax
Upper respiratory tract consist of?
Lower respiratory tract is where?
In the thorax
Lower respiratory tract consists of?
What are associated structures of the respiratory tract?
They are required for respiration, but not specifically part of the tract.
internal nares open into the ______?
Nasal vestibules are divided by______?
Where is nasal hair located?
The proximal portion of the nasal septum
The lateral wall of the vestibule is folded into 3 ridges called?
turbulence aids in the mucous membranes of the nose to?
Clean the air
Enhance the ability of smell
What is just below the cricoid cartilage?
sinuses that communicate with the nasal cavity?
What is found in the roof of the nasal cavity?
The olfactory region
pharynx is divided into?
posterior to the nasal vestibule.
extends the length of the soft palate
from the palate to the hyoid bone
hyoid bone to the cricoid cartilage.
includes the larynx
Larynx is composed of?
4 hyaline cartilages:
contains vocal cords and is open in the back
below the thyroid
narrower anteriorly than posteriorly
flap like that closes the tracheal opening during swallowing
2 triangular pieces of hyaline cartilage posterior to the thyroid cartilage
How many vocal cords?
the 2 vocal cords?
True- mucous membrane strands
False- membraneous wings
opening to trachea
phonation involves the use of?
Vocal cords, pharynx, nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, tongue, teeth, & lips
trachea is where?
anterior to the esophagus
Trachea is composed of?
horse shoe shaped rings that open dorsally
What closes the gap in the horse shoe of the trachea
Elastic and smooth muscle tissue
Trachea is lined with
ciliated columnar- motion directed upward and outward
goblet (mucous) cells
The bifurcation of the trachea?
Food usually get trapped where?
right bronchus- because it is larger and less angled than the left.
The ____extends beneath and through the Aortic arch?
Left primary bronchus
Aspirated food can be removed by the?
Pimary bronchi branch into_____which branch into_____then into______
AT the ____level the cartilage rings are replaced by smooth muscle?
bronchiole branch into
What does the repiratory system look like
What are the 2 cone shaped organs that fill the pleural portions of the thoracic cavity?
lungs are separated by
2 layers of the pleural membrane
outermost- parietal layer
What are the two layers of the pleural membrane separated by
A paper thin pleural cavity which contains pleural fluid
Inflamation of the Pleural cavity
Apex of the lung
cupula extends where?
2cm above the clavicle
Base of lung rests on
opening in the mediastinum for the bronchi, blood and lymph vessels and nerves
left lung is slightly___than the right? Why?
Left lung has __lobes?
lobes of the lungs
(only the right has the middle)
Space in lung that the heart occupies?
Each lobe of the lung is divided into__1__?
Inside each__1__ are numerous __2__
What forms the terminus of air in the lungs?
substance that reduces surface tension and prevent the alveoli from sticking together.
Alveoli are supplied with?
Phagocytic cells in alveoli?
Alveolar macraphages (dust cells)
___determines the degree to which o2 binds to hemoglobin
Hemoglobin saturation of 100% is
4 O2 molecules
affinity is affected by
diffusion moves from __concentration, to __concentration
pulmonary (external) respiration
partial pressure of O2 is higher than that of co2 and the o2 rapidly diffuses into the Heme portion of the blood. (Haldane effect)
Tissue (internal) respiration
partial pressure of CO2 is higher than that of O2 and the CO2 rapidly diffuses into the globin (Bohr effect)
oxygen dissociation curve
demonstrates the transition of partial pressure of oxygen levels between tissues, veins, and arteries at sea level.
When the partial pressure of o2 is high
hemoglobin binds with large amounts of o2 and is almost fully saturated
pO2 is between 60-100mm hg
90% saturated with O2
pO2 is 40 mm hg
75% saturated with O2
pO2 is 20 mm hg
35% saturation of O2
The amount of O2 released from the body varies with?
Fever, bodies metabolic activity intensifies 7% for each degree celsius of temp increase
Stimulates the release of O2 from hemoglobin
Cold, causes metabolic slowdown
more O2 remains bound to hemoglobin
Inhale (pressure gradient)
Less than that of atmosphere
volume of gas varies inversly with pressure
skeletal muscle that contracts when we breath in causing the thoracic cavity to increase
contract pulling the thorax upward and sternum outward, help further increase the thoracic volume
Does not involve muscle contraction
deliberate expulsion of air from lungs
: internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
respiration per minute?
monitor partial pressure of gas
sensitive to changes in hydrogen ions, CO2, and O2 concentrations
(heart, great veins, arteries)
machine used for measuring volume of the lungs
record from spirograph
amount of air that passes in and out of each lung in a normal respiration?
Additional air that can be inspired above the tidal volume?
Additional air that can be expired below the tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air always in the lungs
Amount of air that a person can pull into the lungs beyond that in the lungs at the beginning of the breath?
(tidal + inspiratory reserve)
sum of the residual volume plus expiratory reserve
functional residual capacity
inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
all volumes of lung capacity
Total lung capacity
Ease with which the lungs thoracic wall can be expanded?
Caused by defoliation of the cilia in the respiratory tree
gradual destruction of the alveolar tissue and replacement with scar tissue
Cancer that affects the respirator tree is almost always___related
inflamation of the bronchial tubes
infection and the filling of alveoli with fluids
bacterial infection of the pleurae and lungs produced by a micobacterium
lack of surfactant in a new borns lung
Respiratory distress syndrome of a new born
a clot carried to the lungs that blocks off circulation