Sgu Vet Histology Term 1 Test 3

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Sgu Vet Histology Term 1 Test 3
2010-10-18 17:50:50
Sgu Vet Histology Term Test

Sgu Vet Histology Term 1 Test 3
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  1. The lips are covered externally by ______ and internally by ______
    • integument
    • mucosa
  2. The lips muscosa is lined by ______ epithelium.
    This is keratinized in _____ and non-keratinized in _______.
    • stratified squamous
    • ruminants and horses
    • carnivores and pigs
  3. Labial glands in lips are usually what type of gland and distributed in _______.
    • Mixed (seromucus)
    • propriasubmucosa
  4. The mucosa of the cheeks is lined by ____ epithelium. In ruminants this is studded with ____
    • stratified squamous
    • cinical buccal papillae
  5. The buccal glands of the cheeks are located in the _____ and may be what type of gland.
    • propria-submucosa
    • mixed (sero mucous)
  6. The mucosa of the hard palate is lined by ____epithelium.
    stratified squamous
  7. The propria -submucosa of the hard palate is composted of a dense network of _______.
    • capillaries
    • collagen
    • reticular fibers
  8. The palantine glands of the hard palate of mainly _______ glands.
  9. In ruminants the dental pad is what type of epithelium, overlying a layer of what type of connective tissue?
    • heavily keratinized stratified squamous
    • dense irregular
  10. Soft palate is lined by ______ epithelium.
    stratified squamous
  11. The propria-submucosa of the soft palate contains ___ glands and _______tissues.
    • mixed palantine glands
    • lympathic
  12. The tongue is a muscular organ covered by ____
  13. The tongue is lined by ________ epithelium which is keratinized or non-keratinized on the dorsal surface and _______ on the ventral surface?
    • st. squamous
    • keratinized
    • nonkeratinized
  14. The lingual glands of the tongue are what type of glands?
  15. The dorsal surface of the tongue bears numerous macroscopic _______ which serve either ______ or _____ function.
    • lingual papillae
    • mechanical
    • gustatory
  16. The mechanical lingual papillae that facilitate the movement of ingesta are ________.
    • Filiform
    • Conical
    • Lenticular
  17. The lingual papillae that perform gustatory functions and contain taste buds are _________.
    • Fungiform
    • Valate
    • Foliate
  18. Filiform Papillae are what type of structure and covered by ______ epithelium.
    • thread-like structures
    • keratinized stratified squamous
  19. Conical lingual papillae are larger than ___papillae and are or are not highly keratinized?
    • filiform
    • not highly keratinized
  20. These are flattend papillae that are lens-shaped and present on the torus linguae of ruminants.
    Lenticular Papillae
  21. Lenticular papillae are covered by _______ epithelium
    Keratinized st. squamous
  22. Fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped and are covered by _______epithelium and contain _______ on the dorsal upper surface.
    • Nonekratinized st. sq.
    • taste buds
  23. Which papillae are large and flattened, surounded by an epithelium lined sulcus.
  24. Vallate papillare are covered by a ________ epithelium.
    st. squmaous nonkeratinized
  25. Where are the taste buds located in vallate papillae?
    The papillary side of the sulcus (grove)
  26. Which papillae are have taste buds located on the sides of folds?
    Foliate papillae
  27. What type of epithelium covers foliate papillae?
    st. squamous nonkeratinized
  28. Are foliate papillae absent or present in ruminants and which animal are they rudimentary in?
    • absent
    • cats
  29. In taste buds which typer of nerve fiber is closely associated with gustatory cells?
    non-mylinated nerve fibers (taste receptors)
  30. What is the name of the cordlike structure present in the tongue of carnivores?
  31. The lyssa is composed of what type of tissue, muscle, vessels etc. and enclosed by __________connective tissue capsule.
    • white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessels, nerves
    • dense irregular
  32. What is the name of the large prominence on the caudal part of the dorsal surface of the ruminant tongue?
    torus lingue
  33. What is the name of the cartliage persent in the the tongue of horses?
    Dorsal lingual cartliage
  34. The tooth consists of which type of highly mineralized structures?
    • Enamel
    • Dentine
    • Cementum
  35. What is the name of the central part of the tooth?
    Pulp cavity
  36. What is the hardest substance in the body which is also part of the tooth?
  37. Enamel is produced by ___?
  38. Dentine is produced by ______.
  39. Which part of the tooth resembles bone?
  40. Which fibers form the peridontal ligament, which anchors the tooth in the alveolus?
    Cemento-alveolar (Sharpey's) fibers
  41. What type of teeth are short and cease to grow after eruption is completed?
  42. Brachydonts have a crown, neck and root. That is the crown covered by and what is the root covered by?
    • enamel
    • cementum
  43. Which animals have brachydont teeth?
    Carnivores and incisors of ruminants
  44. Which type of teeth are much longer and continue to grow thoughout life?
    Hypsodont Teeth
  45. Which of the following do the Hypsodont teeth have? Crown, Neck, Root.
  46. The entire Hypsodont tooth is covered by what?
    Cementum and enamel
  47. What types of animals have hypsodont teeth?
    cheek teeth of ruminants, all permanent teeth of horses and canine teeth of pigs.
  48. What type of gland is the parotid? Structurally what type of gland is this?
    • Serous
    • Compound Acinar
  49. What shape are the cells in the acinus of parotid glands?
    pyramidal shaped
  50. What are the three types of ducts in the parotid salivary gland?
    • Intercalated duct
    • Striated duct
    • Interlobular duct
  51. What are the epithelium of the intercalated, striated and interlobular ducts of the parotid?
    • intercalated: low cuboidal
    • striated: simple columnar
    • interlobular: slimple columnar changing to stratified columnar as the ducts become larger and fuse
  52. What type of gland is the mandibular gland?
    • Mixed
    • Compount tubuloacinar
  53. What type of gland is the sublingual salivary gland?
    • Mixed
    • Tubuloacinar
  54. The main duct of the subingual salivary gland is _________ epithelium.
    st. cuboidal
  55. Sublingual salivary gland in dogs and cats have _______ ducts that are not prominent but are well developed in ruminats and pigs.
    • Intercalated and
    • Striated
  56. Which type of salivary gland is composed of long branched, tubuloacinar secretory units which are predominantly mucous with small flattened serous demilune. Intercalated and striated ducts are almost nonexistant.
    Zygomatic salivary gland
  57. Which salivary gland of cats is histologically similar to the zygomatic salivary gland?
    Molar salivary gland
  58. What is the general structure of tubular organs and what do they contain?
    • Tunica mucosa : contains epithelium, lamina propria, lamina muscularis
    • Tunica Submucosa: c.t., glands, Meissner's plexus
    • Tunica Muscularis: smooth or skeletal muscles and Auribach's plexus
    • Tunical Adventitia (serosa): Outer layer
  59. The esophagus tunica mucosa's epithelim is composed of ______ in dogs and _____ in horses and ______in ruminants?
    • st. squamous
    • nonkeratinized in dogs
    • slightly keratinized in pigs and horses
    • highly keratinized in ruminants
  60. The lamia muscularis in the espohagus is composed of what type of muscls?
  61. What type of glands are present on the esophagus and where are they located in horses, cats, runimnats, pgis and dogs?
    • Mixed
    • pharyngoesophageal junction in horses, cats and ruminants
    • cranial half of esophagus in pigs
    • throughout in dogs
  62. The tunica muscularis of the esophagus is composed of what layers of muscle?
    Inner circular and outer longitundinal layer of muscle
  63. The tunica muscularis in is what type of muscle in ruminants, dogs, horses, and cats?
    • Ruminants and dogs = striated
    • Horses = skeletal and then 1/3 smooth
    • cats = skeletal and then 1/5 smooth
  64. The inner circular layer of the tunica muscularis of the esophgus in horses froms the _________.
    cardiac sphincter
  65. Which animals have a simple stomach?
    Horse, pig and carnivores
  66. Which animals have a compound stomach?
  67. Which parts of the ruminants stomach are nonglandular?
    rumen, reticulum and omasum
  68. The epithelium of the nonglandular stomach is ______.
    st. squamous and may be keratinized depending on species and diet
  69. The epithelium of the rumen is _______.
    Keratinized st. squamous
  70. Describe the lamina muscularis, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa of the rumen.
    • Lamina Muscularis is absent. Lamina propria blends with submucosa.
    • Tunica muscularis is composed of an inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle.
    • Tunica serosa is loose ct. covered by mesothelium containing fat, bood vessels and nerves
  71. Reticulum mucosa is characterised by ____ which have vertical ridges on their sides.
    reticular folds
  72. Which papillae are on the mucosa between the reticular folds of the reticulum?
  73. What is the epithelium of the reticulum?
    st. squamous keratinized
  74. Describe the propria-submucosa of the reticulum.
    collagn and elastic fibers, smooth muscles on upper part of reticular folds
  75. Describe the tunica muscularis of the reticulum.
    2 layers smooth muscle following oblique course and cross at right angles
  76. Describe the tunic serosa of the reticulum.
    loose ct covered by mesothelium containing fat, blood vessels and nerves
  77. The omasum has what that help in grinding of the food?
    Leaves which are studdded with macroscopic papillae
  78. The epithelium of the omasum is _______.
    st. squamous keratinized
  79. The glandular region of the stomach is divided into which regions?
    Cardiac, fundic and pyloric
  80. The surface of the glandular region of the stomach has smal invaginations continuous with the gastric glands called _______.
    Gastric pits
  81. The mucosal surface of gastric pits are lined by _____epithelium.
    simple columnar
  82. The cardiac gland region is well developed in which species?
  83. Describe the cardiac gland region?
    Short simple branched coiled tubular glands that release mucus
  84. What are the cells of the cardiac glands and where are the nuclei?
    • cuboidal
    • basal portion of cells
  85. Describe the fundic glands
    Straight, brached, tubular and extend into the lamina muscularis
  86. Name the 4 types of cells that comprise the secretory epithelium.
    • Mucus neck cells
    • chief cells
    • parietal cells
    • endocrine cells
  87. What are mucous neck cells of the fundic gland region and what part do they occupy?
    Mucous cells, flat nucleus toward cell base, occupy the neck of the gland
  88. Describe chief cells of the fundic gland region.
    • The most numerous cells.
    • Cuboidal or puramidal with spherical nucleus near base of cell.
  89. What do chief cells secrete?
    Pepsingen which is transformed into pepsin by HCL
  90. Describe Parietal Cells of the funic gland region.
    • Larger and less numerous than chief cells and occur singly.
    • Spherical nucleus
  91. What do the parietal cells of the funic gland region conatin an abundance of carbonic anhydrase which hleps in the formation of what?
  92. Cheif cells versus parietal cells of fudic gland region. Which stains basophilic and which stains with eosin?
    Chief are basophilic due to rER and parietal are eosin.
  93. Which cells of the fundic gland retgion are responsible for the production of GIT hormones (gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide)?
    endocrine cells
  94. Which cells of the funic gland region are wedged betweent he basement membrane and the chief cells and are best demonstrated with silver stain and referred to as argentaffin cells?
  95. What type of cels are pyloric glands?
    branched, coiled, tubular glands that are shorter than other gastric glands
  96. Describe the cells of pyloric glands.
    Mucuous, flat nuclei located at base of cell.
  97. Which layer of the pyloric gland forms the pyloric sphincter?
    Middle circular layer of he tunica muscularis.
  98. How many layers of the Tunica muscularis of the stomach are there and what are they?
    • 3
    • inner oblique
    • middle circular
    • outer longitudinal layer
  99. What are the three specialized structures of the small intestine aiding in digestion and absorption?
    Muscosal folds, intestinal villi and microvilli on the free surface of the simple columnar epithelial cells.
  100. What is the epithelium of the small intestine?
    Simple columnar with numberous goblet cells.
  101. In the tunica mucosa of the small intestine which type of cells have microvilli forming a striated border.
    columnar cells
  102. In the tunica mucosa of the small intestine: Where is the smooth ER and Golgi complex versus the rER and free ribosomes?
    • Apical cytoplasm: smooth ER
    • Basal cytoplasm: rER and free ribosomes
  103. Where are crypts of Lieberkuhn located?
    base of the villi
  104. Crypts of Liberkuhn give rise to which type of cells?
    columnar and goblet
  105. Ehich cells are present in ruminants and horses near the base of the intestinal gland?
    Paneth cells
  106. What do Paneth cells poduce?
    peptidase and lysozyme
  107. What part of the small intestine forms the core of the villi and surrounds the intestinal glands?
    Core of the villi
  108. What is the lamina propria of the s.i. rich in?
    blood vessels, fibrocytes, smooth muscles, plasma cells and mast cells
  109. Where is a lacteal located in the si?
    center of the villus in the core of the villi
  110. Which animal is the lamina muscularis of the s.i. complete?
  111. Where are Brunner's gland mainly located and what type are they in the dog, ruminants, pigs, horses, cats (serous, mucus, mixed)?
    • Duodenum
    • Mucous: Dogs and Ruminants
    • Serous: Pigs and Horses
    • Mixed: Cats
  112. Peyers patches (large aggregated lymphatic nodules) are present where?
  113. The layer between the inner and outer smooth muscle layer of the Tunica Muscularis and Serosa of the S.I. is called?
    Myenteric Plexus
  114. Which animal is the tunica muscularis of the S.I. thickest?
  115. Does the L.I. contain villi?
  116. Does the L.I. contain Paneth cells?
  117. In which animals is the L.I.'s outer longitudinal layer of the tunica muscularis forming flat muscle bands and numerous elastic fibers?
  118. Which part of the L.I. is there an increase in goblet cells?
  119. The anal canal in which animals has columnar, intermediate and cutaneous zones?
    pigs and carnivores
  120. What is the order of the zones of the anal canal in pigs and carnivores?
    • Columnar zone
    • Intermediate zone
    • Cutaneous zone
  121. In which animals are the anal sacs bilateral evaginations of anal mucosa having modified sweat glands?
  122. What is the largest gland in the body?
  123. What are the functions of the liver?
    • Secretion of bile
    • Metabolism of protein, CHO, lipid, hemoglobin and drugs
    • Hemopoiesis (in fetus)
    • Phagocytosis and detoxification
  124. What is the name of the capsule surrounding the liver?
    Glisson's capsule
  125. The c.t. extending from the capsule to the liver is called interlobular c.t. and this is scant in most species except for?
  126. What is considered the anatomical unit of the liver, where is the central vein and what are the shape of the lobules?
    Classic lobules which have a centrally placed central vein and are hexagonal shaped
  127. What is considered the functional unit in relation to the bile secreation of the liver? Where is the portal area and how many classic lobules are there and in which direction?
    Portal lobules and are trianular with portal area in center and 3 classic lobules as central veins at perifpheral angles
  128. What is considered the functional unit in relation to metabolic activity? What are the shapes of the lobules, how many central veins and in what direction?
    Liver acinus, diamond-shaped, 2 classic lobules, 2 central veins at aposing points.
  129. What are 3 surfaces of hepatocytes?
    • Microvillus
    • Canalicular
    • Conact surface between adjacent hepatocytes
  130. Which cells after feeding fill with numerous glycogen and lipid inclusions?