Chapter 6 - THE CELL

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Meg
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43085
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Chapter 6 - THE CELL
Updated:
2010-10-18 15:58:43
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How Cells Read the Genome: From DNA to Protein
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  1. The path of genetic information from DNA to RNA is ________ and from RNA to protein is_______.
    • Transcription
    • Translation
  2. RNA is a linear polymer made of _____ different types of _________ _________ linked together by a ___________ bond.
    • 4
    • nucleotide subunits
    • phosphodiester
  3. Name 2 ways RNA differs from DNA chemically:
    1._______________
    2._______________
    • The nucleotides in RNA are ribonucleotides
    • It contains the base uracil versus thymine found in DNA
  4. True/False: In RNA the phosphodiester linkage between nucleotides in RNA is different than in DNA
    • False
    • The phosphodiester chemical linkage is the same in RNA as in DNA
  5. In transcription, incoming nucleotides are:
    A) ADP CDP UDP GDP
    B) ATP TTP CTP GTP
    C) ATP CTP UTP GTP
    D) ADP CDP TDP GDP
    C) Collectively known as the ribonucleoside triphosphates
  6. Provide 3 ways in which RNA differs from DNA
    Hint: linkage, initiation, and storage
    • I) RNA Polymerase catalyzes the linkage of ribonucleotides, not deoxyribonucleotides
    • II) RNA Polymerase can start an RNA chain without a primer
    • III) RNA does not permanently store genetic information in cell

  7. A Type of RNA that codes for proteins:
    A) mRNAs
    B) tRNAs
    C) rRNAs
    D) snRNA
    • A) mRNAs
    • Fact: mRNA only comprises of 3-5% of the total RNA in a typical mammalian cell, and only 10-15 molecules on average of each species of mRNA present per cell.
  8. _____ forms the basic structure of the ribosome, and catalyzes protein synthesis:
    A) tRNAs
    B) mRNAs
    C) miRNAs
    D) rRNAs
    D) rRNAs
  9. Central to protein synthesis as adaptors between mRNA and amino acids:
    A) rRNAs
    B) scaRNAs
    C) tRNAs
    D) siRNAs
    C) tRNAs
  10. ________ function in a variety of nuclear processes, including the splicing of pre-mRNA:
    A) snoRNAs
    B) rRNAs
    C) tRNAs
    D) snRNAs
    D) snRNAs
  11. _____ are used to process and chemically modify rRNAs
    A) snRNAs
    B) siRNAs
    C) non-coding RNAs
    D) snoRNAs
    D) snoRNAs
  12. _________ are used to modify snoRNAs and snRNAs:
    A) miRNAs
    B) non-coding RNAs
    C) scaRNAs
    D) siRNAs
    • C) scaRNAs (small cajal RNAs)
  13. ____ turn off gene expression by directing degradation of selective mRNAs and the establishment of compact chromatin structures:
    A) siRNAs
    B) Non-coding RNAs
    C) miRNAs
    D) scaRNAs
    A) siRNAS (small interfering RNAs)
  14. _____ regulate gene expression typically by blocking translation of selective mRNAs
    A) rRNAs
    B) miRNAs
    C) snRNAs
    D) non-coding RNAs
    B) miRNAs (micro RNAs)
  15. ____ function in diverse cell processes, including telomere synthesis, X-chromosome inactivation, and the transport of proteins into the ER:
    A) RNA polymerase
    B) non-coding RNAs
    C) spliceosome
    D) ribosomal RNAs
    B) non-coding RNAs

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