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2010-10-18 18:15:51
Fundamentals Final review

Chp 41
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  1. Intracellular fluid (ICF)
    • Fluids within cells
    • 42% of body fat
    • 2/3 body water
  2. Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
    • Fluid outside of cell
    • 17% of body weight
    • Interstital
    • Intravascular
    • Transcellular
  3. Electrolyte
    An element or compound that, when dissolved or dissociated in water or solvent, separates into ions that are electrically charged
  4. Define Ion
    Atoms or groups of atoms that have acquired an electrical charge through the gain or loss of an electron or electrons
  5. Define Cation
    Positively charged atoms
  6. Type of cations
    • Sodium Na+
    • Calcium Ca+
    • PotassiumK+
    • Magnesium Mg+
  7. Define Anion
    Negatively charged atoms
  8. Types of Anions
    • Chloride Cl-
    • Bocarbonate HCO-3
    • Phosphate PO43-
  9. Osmosis
    Movement of a pure solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a lower solute concentration to one with a higher solute concentration
  10. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  11. Filtration
    Process by which water and diffusible substances move together in response to fluid pressure
  12. Active Transport
    Movement of materials across the cell membrane by means of chemical activity that allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be possible
  13. Hypertonic Solution
    Situation in which one solution has a greater concentration of solute than another solution; therefore the first solution exerts more osmotic pressure
  14. Isontonic Solution
    Situation in which two solutions have the same concentration of solute; therefore both solutions exert the same osmotic pressure
  15. Hypotonic Solution
    Situation in which one solution has a smaller concentration of solute than another solution; therefore the first solution exerts less osmotic pressure
  16. Osmotic Pressure
    Total influence of a protein on the osmotic activity of plasma water
  17. Osmoloarity
    Osmotic pressure of a solution expressed in osmols or milliosmols per liter of the solution
  18. Sensible water loss
    Water loss that occurs though excess perspiration
  19. Insensible water loss
    Loss of fluid from the body by evaporation, such as that which normally occurs during respiration
  20. Types of IV solutions
    • Dextrose and water solutions
    • Saline solution
    • Dextrose and saline
    • Multiple electrolyte solutions
  21. Solute
    Substance dissolved in a solution
  22. Solvent
    Any liquid in which another substance can be dissolved
  23. Hypovolemia
    Decreased circulatory blood volume resulting from extracellular fluid losses
  24. Osmoreceptors
    Receptor that is sensitive to fluid concentration in the blood plasma and that regulates the secretion of antidiuretic hormone
  25. Homeostasis
    State of relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, maintained naturally by physiological adaptive mechanisms
  26. Hormones that regulate fluid intake
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
    • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanisem (RAAS)
  27. Normal Potassium level
  28. Normal Sodium level
  29. Normal calcium level
  30. Normal Magnesium level
  31. Normal chloride level
  32. Normal bicarbonate level
    • arterial 22-26
    • venous 24-30
  33. Normal phosphorus level
  34. Buffer
    Substance or group of substances that can absorb or release hydrogen ions to correct an acid-base imbalance
  35. Acidosis
    An increase of hydrogen ions producing a lower pH
  36. Alkalosis
    A decrease of hydrogen ions producing a higher pH
  37. 2 physiological buffers of the body
    • lungs
    • kidney
  38. Respiratory acidosis
    • Increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration
    • excess carbonic acid
    • Increased hydrogen ion concentration
    • pH less the 7.35
  39. Respiratory alkalosis
    • Decreased arterial carbon dioxide concentration
    • Decreased hydrogen ion concentration
    • pH greater than 7.45
  40. Metabolic acidosis
    high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid caused by either a primary increase in hydrogen ions or a decrease in bicarbonate
  41. Metabolic alkalosis
    significant loss of acid from the body or by increased levels of bicarbonate
  42. Anion gap
    Difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions: determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions
  43. Medictions that cause fluid electrolyte and acid-base disturbances
    • Diuretics
    • Steroids
    • Potassium supplements
    • Anibiotics
    • Tums
    • Milk of magnesia
    • NSAIDS
  44. Crystalloids
    Intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte therapy
  45. Colloids
    Blood and blood components
  46. Venipuncture
    Technique in which a vein is punctured transcutaneously by a sharp, rigid stylet or by a needle attached to a syringe
  47. Phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein