TOUR2001 Lecture 11

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zoeyemma
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TOUR2001 Lecture 11
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2010-10-18 22:27:52
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TOUR2001 Lecture UQ
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study for quiz 3
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  1. Why do Australians travel abroad?
    • Seeking more diverse destinations
    • Growing preference for independent travel
    • Greater interest in interacting with hosts
  2. What is culture?
    What are the three themes in defining culture?
    • Culture as whole way of life
    • Concern with rules of behaviour
    • Concern with artefacts/products produced
  3. Culture Shock
    What is culture shock? What are some situations in which this can occur?
    The difficulties of operating in a foreign culture

    • - individual immersed in unfamiliar culture
    • - loss of familiar cues/signals
    • - feelings of cofusion, anxiousness, bewilderment
  4. Culture Shock
    Causes of culture shock?
    • Physical environment
    • Orientation issues
    • Communication issues
    • Differing routines
    • Daily Hassles
  5. Culture Shock
    What can culture shock result in from a tourism perspective?
    • decreased visitor satisfaction
    • intolerance towards hosts (guests)
    • in extreme cases, agression
  6. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    Differences in Customs and Behaviours
    • formality
    • social customs
    • styles of dress
    • language
    • non-verbal communication
    • conflict styles
    • gender roles
    • time (monochronic v polychronic)
  7. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    How do australians view themselves?
    • informal, friendly, casual
    • egalitarian
    • direct, no-nonsense attitude
    • relaxed
    • innovative
    • individualistic, progressive
    • open
  8. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    How do some foreigners view australians?
    • undisciplined, too personal
    • insensitive to status
    • blunt, rude
    • lazy
    • opportunistic
    • self-absorbed
    • weak, untrustworthy
  9. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    Asian Culture communication styles:
    • Indirect
    • implicit, non-verbal
    • formal
    • goal oriented
    • emotionally controlled
    • self affecing, modest
  10. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    Australian Culture communication styles:
    • Direct
    • Explicit, Verbal
    • Informal
    • Spontaneous
    • Emotionally Expressive
    • Self-Promoting, Egocentric
  11. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    Hofstedes Cross-Cultural Dimensions:
    • Power Distance
    • Individualistic v Collectivist
    • Uncertainty avoidance v Uncertainty tolerance
    • Masculine v Feminine
    • Long term v Short term Orientation
  12. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    Hall's Cultural context continuum: High Context
    • Identification: Group
    • Sensory involvement: High (low personal space, high contact/touch behaviour)
    • Messages: Implicit (embedded in social context, ritual, relationships)
    • Time sense/chronicity: Polychronic (miltiple times, time is circular, multiple events occur simultaneously)
  13. Cross-Cultural Diversity
    Hall's Cultural context continuum: Low Context
    • Identification: Individual
    • Sensory involvement: Low (high personal space, low contact/touch behaviour)
    • Messages: Explicit (words carry most information)
    • Time sense/chronicity: Monochronic (one time only, time is linear, punctuality/scheduling/planning)
  14. Cross-Cultural Challenges
    What are the six levels of the Layered Approach?
    • 1. Verbal & Non verbal behaviour
    • 2. Speech acts / Forms of address
    • 3. Episodes / Sequences of behaviour
    • 4. Nature of social bonds
    • 5. Life scripting
    • 6. Cultural patterns
  15. Cross-Cultural Challenges
    Problems of language:
    • Lack of language equivalency
    • - no such word
    • - no need for the word
    • - no equivalent grammatical form

    • Difficulties in using English
    • - multiple meanings of words
    • - culturally derived words
    • - two-word verbs
  16. Cross-Cultural Solutions
    Cross cultural conflicts can be reduced through:
    Information training to both visitors and hosts

    • - guide books
    • - cross cultural assimilator
    • - social skills training
  17. Developing cross-cultural skills
    Tips for tourists engaging in cross cultural interaction
    • Educate yourself about differences
    • Practice effective communication skills
    • Avoid forming an opinion based on dress, mannerisms, accent or eye contact
  18. Developing Cross-Cultural Skills
    Tips for leisure and tourism providers
    • Offer language training to employees
    • Encourage employees to accept overseas work assignments
    • Provide before and after transition counseling to employees and families with overseas work assignments
    • Provide sensitivity training to help employees learn about cross-cultural differences
    • Examine employment practices to ensure that the company is not discriminating against anyone

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