ANBI 100

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ANBI 100
2010-10-24 21:00:34

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  1. aspect of sexuality that addresses WHY, or for what function, a trait evolved
  2. Aspect of sexuality that addresses underlying mechanisms that control for a trait
  3. a form of natural selection that acts differently on the sexes
    sexual selection
  4. sexual selection that favors the ability of one sex
    i.e. male-male competition
    intrasexual selection
  5. sexual selection that favors traits in one sex which attract the other
    i.e. female mate choice
    intersexual selection
  6. occurs when genetic/reproductive interests of females and males diverge
    can lead to one sex having an advantage, or an arms race between the sexes
    i.e. infanticide
    intersexual or mate conflict
  7. a trait that is specially suited for a particular fx in a particular env't
  8. conditions for evolution by natural selection
    • trait is heritable
    • trait has variation
    • trait leads to differential reproductive success
  9. differential reproductive success of individuals over multiple generations based on the heritable differences between them; aka non-random selection
    natural selection
  10. examples of sexually selected traits (5)
    • Peacock's tail
    • Mandrill's face
    • Proboscis monkey's nose
    • Orang's cheek flanges
    • Fiddler crab's claw
  11. Features that result from a common ancestry
  12. Specialized traits that distinguish species from its last common ancestor
    derived traits
  13. Common features that are not the result from a common ancestry
  14. when distantly related species evolve the same/similar trait as an adaptation to same ecological pressures
    convergent evolution
  15. characteristics of mammals (6)
    • 1. Hair
    • 2. Specialized sweat glands
    • 3. Live young (vivaparity)
    • 4. Three middle ear bones
    • 5. Heterodonty
    • 6. Pentadactyly (ancestral)
  16. major categories of primates
    • 1. Prosimians (suborder: Prosimii)
    • 2. Anthropoids (suborder: Anthropoidea)
    • A. New World monkeys
    • B. Old World monkeys
    • C. Apes & Humans
  17. traits that have not changed from their ancestral states
    primitive (ancestral) traits
  18. Found in southeast Asia
    Share some features with both prosimians and anthropoids.
    Sometimesclassified in suborder Prosimii, sometimes in suborder Haplorhini
    Nocturnal, Solitary
    The only carnivorous (insectivorous) primate!
  19. prosimian beh'ral characteristics (8)
    • arboreal
    • nocturnal
    • solitary
    • seasonal breeders
    • small-bodied
    • tooth comb
    • long snouts
    • tapetum lucidum
  20. adaptations that differ from the ancestral state
    derived features
  21. anthropoid characteristics (5)
    • large brains
    • nails on all digits
    • large body size
    • diurnal
    • complex social systems w/extended parental care
  22. platyrrhines
    new world monkeys
  23. catarrhines
    old world monkeys and apes
  24. arboreal, frugivorous/gumivorous/folivorous/insectivorous/seed-eaters, 3 Families: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Atelidae
    New World Monkeys
  25. subfamilies Colobinae/Cercopithecinae, some species terrestrial, some have menstrual cycles and sexual swellings
    Old World Monkeys
  26. Hylobatidae/Pongidae/Hominidae, no tail, large body size, short trunk, flexible shoulder joint
  27. arboreal brachiators, fruit-eaters, "lesser apes," sexually monomorphic, socially monogamous, & territorial
  28. anthropoids, arboreal scramblers, found in Asia, fruit-eaters, sexually dimorphic, often solitary
  29. terrestrial knuckle-walkers, largely frugivorous, fission-fusion communities
  30. small, one-male groups, herbivorous and frugivorous, mountain and lowland species
  31. portion of land that is actively defended
  32. entirety of land used by a troop
    home range
  33. direct costs of group living (5)
    • competition for mates/food
    • harassment
    • disease transmission
    • conspicuity
    • conflicts
  34. indirect side effecs of group living (3)
    • coordinate decisions/travel
    • cover larger distances for food
    • increased competition
  35. solitary social system, occurs when females assemble based on spread out resources
  36. social systems that consist of multiple members, i.e. pair + offspring, harem/bachelor groups, MM-MF, and fission-fusion
    cohesive social systems
  37. polygynandrous species
    chimps, red colobus, some capuchins, some macaques
  38. temporary association; coalescing and splitting based on availability of food
  39. ratio of males to females
    socioeconomic sex ratio (SSR)
  40. ratio of males to presently breeding females
    operational sex ratio (OSR)
  41. extreme is forced copulation; more commonly shows up in primates via intimidation and aggression
    sexual coercion
  42. what are the 3 levels sexual selection acts on?
    precopulatory, postcopulatory, and postzygotic
  43. mating contests and mate choice are examples of what level of sexual selection?
  44. copulatory plugs, sperm competition, and mate guarding (sometimes) are examples of what level of sexual selection?
  45. infanticide is an example of what level of sexual selection?
  46. female counter-strategies to infanticide? 5
    • paternity confusion (hidden ovulation, pseudoestrus)
    • female defense aid
    • male defenders
    • female transfer
  47. most muscular tube in the male body
    vas deferens
  48. what is the most likely reason for such complexity in primate penile morphology?
    selection by cryptic female choice
  49. tip of the penis
  50. species with the most derived penile morphology; distal penis is filiform w/no glans, likely evolved from sperm competition and to accomodate female swellings
    chimps and bonobos
  51. mechanism for detecting pheromones
    vomeronasal organ
  52. humans and our extinct ancestors after the split from the last common ancestor with chimpanzees
  53. any member of the family Hominidae, including all australopithecines and the genus Homo, walks upright
  54. any member of the superfamily Hominoidea, including humans, all living apes, and numerous extinct ape and humanlike species from the Mioccene, Pilocene, and Pleistocene epochs
  55. • Date from 4.2 million years to 1.2 million years ago
    • Mix of bipedal locomotion and ape-like features
    • Small brained creatures with lots of sexual dimorphism in body mass and a little in canine size
    • Some species had specialized dietary adaptations (Paranthropines)
    General facts about australopithecenes
  56. Remains found at Lake Turkana, primitive biped (suggested by knee and ankle bones) living in streamside forests
    Had large molars, thick enamel, and reduced canines; its U-shaped dental arcade is more similar to chimps and gorillas
    Dated to 4.2-3.9 mya
    Australopithecus anamensis
  57. remarkably complete skeleton, best-known australopithecine, found in East Africa 4-3 mya, fossils indicate habitats ranging from woodland to dry savanna, and that there was pronounced sexual dimorphism
  58. species represented by the Lucy fossil, one of the earliest bipeds
    Australopithecus afarensis
  59. individual with a flatter face than earlier australopithecines. Nomenclature is questioned.
    Kenyanthropus platyops
  60. possibly earliest australopithecine to use tools (2.5 MYA)
    A. garhi
  61. “Southern ape ofAfrica”
    • Found in South African cave and cliff deposits in a cement like matrix (breccia).
    • Probable descendant of A. afarensis that migrated south
    Taung Child, 3 yr old, discovered 1924
    Australopithecus africanus
  62. Proper term for robust Australopithecines
  63. • Anatomically specialized for hard-object diet: nuts and tough fibers. Also ate some meat.
    • Maximized muscles of mastication produced flared zygomatic arches and postorbital constriction.
    Robust Australopithecines
  64. -Small brained animal with prognathic face and large anterior teeth.
    -Primitive, possible ancestor of later robust individuals who share a set of traits with this species.
    -Locality: Lake Turkana
    P. aethiopicus
  65. • Robust individual who shared some features with A. aethiopicus.
    • Highly specialized with a wide East African distribution.
    • Locality: Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia
    P. boisei
  66. • Discovered in 1938 ata time when scientists doubted early hominids lived in Africa.
    • Robust individiuals but smaller than A. boisei.
    • Locality: Kromdraai, Swartkrans, Drimolen
    P. robustus
  67. 2 outcomes of >1 species occupying the same habitat
    • 1. Diversify
    • 2. Compete for food, with one becoming extinct
  68. Defining traits of the genus Homo (4)
    • Rounded braincase
    • Reduced post-orbital constriction
    • Reduced lower facial prognathism
    • More anteriorly situated foramen magnum
  69. “Handy man” since found in association with stone tools
    Much larger brain? ~50% > compared to Australopithecines
    Findings restricted to Olduvai Gorge
    Homo habilis
  70. -Consist of cores (river cobbles) or source material from which flakes are removed by striking with a hammerstone
    -Include flakes or small fragments, extremely sharp and useful in butchering meat or slicing through animal hide.
    Oldowan tools
  71. • A major shift in hominid lineage took place about 1.8 MYA from H. habilis
    • Bigger bodies
    • Longer legs
    • A modern-like gait
    • A larger brain and uniquely shaped skull
    Homo erectus
  72. used Acheulean tools, earliest evidence of controlled fire, diet included both plants and animals to sustain brain size and body size increase
    H. erectus
  73. Have a blend of H. erectus and H.sapiens traits (mosaic evolution)
    Robust bodies and large faces
    Larger brain, more sapiens-like skull
    Large, arching brow ridge
    Large nasal aperture
    Thick-boned cranial vault
    Inflated cheeks
    Homo heidelbergensis
  74. Larger cranium than modern humans, Short limbs, short fingers, but broad chests and broad pelvis
  75. Direct ancestors of modern Europeans, contributed some genes to modern human populations were completely replaced by modern humans without contributing any genes to contemporary populations
  76. Behavioral traits include making stone tools, Coping with cold, Hunting and subsistence, Cannibalism, Burying the dead, Ritual and symbolic performance and expression
  77. size, sexual composition anad spatiotemporal cohesion of a society
    social organization
  78. 3 aspects of a social system
    • social organization
    • mating system
    • social structure
  79. pattern of social interactions and social relationships of members of a society
    social structure
  80. 5 reasons to form groups
    • predator protection
    • resource defense
    • foraging efficiency
    • improved cargiving opps
    • infanticide protection
  81. composition of a social group
    social system
  82. determines the number of sexual partners that individuals have
    mating system
  83. social system in which individuals forage separately to increase efficiency, but sometimes sleep near each other
  84. social system in which individuals feed, travel, and sleep together
  85. system in which individual females occupy very large and exclusive ranges where other females are not tolerated. The best option for males is to pair up with a single female
  86. characteristics of monogamy (6)
    • Low M-M competition
    • Low SD
    • High PI
    • Egalitarian
    • Small home ranges
    • Arboreal
  87. system in which a female lives in a reproductive or social unit with more than one male
  88. reproductive skew, SSR, OSR, and female choice influence the intensity of _______________
    male-male competition
  89. canine dimorphism is dependent upon what type of ratio?
    socioeconomic sex ratio
  90. body size dimorphism depends on what ratio?
    operational sex ratio
  91. sex differences in schedule of development
  92. aspects of morphology that reliably indicate male survival ability, pathogen resistance, etc.; they also indicate how a male's offspring will do
  93. examples of handicaps
    • ornament size
    • color intensity
    • ornament elaboration
    • degree of asymmetry in bilaterally symmetrical structures
  94. Male reproductive tactics (5)
    • Dominance
    • Coalitions w/other males
    • Mate guarding
    • Sneaky males
    • Sexual coercion
  95. stage in which dominance is established via aggressive competition among individuals
    initial stage
  96. stage in which members arrange themselves into a transitive hierarchy based on the outcome of the many individual contests among individuals
    equilibrium stage
  97. relationship between individuals in a group, not inherited genetically
  98. what conditions must be in place for animals to fight?
    if the probability of winning the fight X value of the resource outweigh the cost of fighting
  99. short-term association of 2 or more males
  100. long-term coalition of 2 or more males
  101. a male and female who maintain an exclusive relationship, highly variable in duration, usually to facilitate mating opportunities and ensure fertilization
  102. extreme is forced copulation; more common is intimidation, harassment, and aggression directed at female to induce her to copulate willingly
    sexual coercion
  103. adaptive strategy among non-human primate males in which they kill a female's infant in order to induce ovulation and bring her out of lactational amenhorrea sooner
  104. most muscular tube in the male body
    vas deferins
  105. provide transport medium (fluid) for spermatozoa during ejaculation
    seminal vesicles and & prostate gland
  106. 5 potential hypotheses for evolution of male genitalia
    • lock and key hypothesis
    • genitalic recognition
    • pleiotropism
    • mechanical conflict of interest
    • female choice
  107. occurs in female spider monkeys, has a function in scent marking/attracting mates, in fission-fusion structure, similar to fx of swellings
    clitoral hypertrophy
  108. filtering mechanism of females that is 1-2 cm in humans, function is not entirely understood
    uterotubal junction
  109. ovarian end of oviduct
  110. removal of sperm plasma membrane
  111. a sperms' rapid figure-8 movements that may help to break away from the pack
  112. escape of the acrosomal contents
    acrosome reaction
  113. Characteristics of the primate order?
    • grasping hands and feet
    • nails instead of claws
    • hindlimb-dominated locomotion
    • increased reliance on vision
    • reduced dependence on olfaction
    • extensive female investment in offspring
    • large brains