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Distinctions of Episodic Memory
A type of long term memory for witch one has time and space reference. They have a reference to the self and a sense of intimacy
The memory of factual knowledge. One cannot remember the source of the memory, it's organized conceptually, have no necessary reference to the self. Retrieval is through conceptual cues.
KC: Case Study
An anterograde amnesia patient. He retained his procedural knowledge.
Happens when people are hypnotized and, during the trance, they learn obscure facts. They are then given hypnotic suggestions to forget everything that happened during the session. Afterwards, if asked, they remember the obscure fact (that is they retain the semantic memory) but they do not know where they learned it (they lose the episodic memory).
Will cause problems for the retrieval of episodic memories but not semantic memories.
Damage to the right frontal lobe.
Declarative vs procedural memory.
Gilber Ryle said: There is a distinction between "knowing how" (procedural) and "knowing that" (declarative).
Declarative memory (explicit memory)
The type of memory that stores facts and experiences. Both semantic and episodic memory are part of this category. It refers to "knowing that".
Procedural memory (non-declaritive memory or implicit memory)
The long term memory of skills and procedures, or "how to" knowledge. Characterized by the lack of conscious awareness in the act of recollection. Often not easily verbalized.
Cohen and Squire- Dissociation between procedural and declarative memory.
They gave both amnesiacs and controls a mirror reading tasks, in witch participants had to read words as reflected in a mirror. Each trial presented them with three words some of the triplets were repeated, results show that both amnesiacs and controls improved their reading skills at about the same rate. But the difference was in the reading times of the repeated triplets. The control subjects recognized the triplet and were able to read it faster than the amnesiacs who did not recognize the triplet. This suggests that amnesiacs have good procedural memory but poor declarative memory.
Tasks to measure implicit/explicit memory.
Priming, perceptual identification tasks, famous person task, and behavioral dissociations.
A type of task in witch subjects are presented a list of words for example armchair, wall, dinner, desire, garage, horse foot. Then they are either asked what was the word from the list that began with the letters gar and they were supposed to answer garage (this is a cued recall task because it addresses explicit memory) or they are asked what is the first word that comes to mind and begins with GAR. And they usually respond with garage (stem completion task it addresses implicit memory). Previous exposure primes people to say garage.
Perceptual Identification task
Participants are asked to study a list of words for example armchair, wall, dinner, desire, garage, horse foot. Afterwards they are presented with a very fast exposure of words for example garage (witch is on the study list) they get one point on an accuracy scale if they are able to report that the word they have been presented with is garage. Among the words that are presented very fast is also the word "garbage". It turns out participants are able to get more points on an accuracy scale for words that were on the study list than for words that were not on the study list. This is a test of implicit memory.
Famous person task
By Jacoby 1989: Participants are presented with a list of names. Some of the names are famous and some aren't. A day later, participants are again presented with a list of names and are asked to evaluate if the names belong to famous or non-famous persons. The 2nd list is made of old famous names presented in the first list, old non-famous names presented in the first list, new famous names not presented in the first list and new non famous names not presented in the first list. Because they had a sense of familiarity with the old non-famous names, participants were more likely to say those names belonged to famous people. The participants used their sense of familiarity to evaluate wether the names were famous or not. The results show that part of the remembering experience has to do with a sense of familiarity. Thus, this task suggest familiarity drives implicit memory.
- They point out that at first glance implicit and explicit memories are clearly distinctive. Supported by the following premises:
- 1-Depth of processing affects explicit but not implicit memory
- 2-Interference affects explicit but not implicit memory.
- 3-Modality Specificity is important for implicit memory tasks but not for implicit ones.
- 4-Amneciacs show preserved implicit memory but disrupted explicit memory.