When and where was the term “biodiversity” coined?
1986 in Washington DC
What are some definitions of biodiversity?
All of life. The diversity of life on earth as represented by extant species. All the genetic material that makes up organisms and species. Communities of species and the ecosystems in which they live.
How many described species are there?
How many and what percentage of all described species are insects?
56% or 960,000 species
What percentage of all described species are arthropods?
What does the term hyperdiverse taxa describe?
Originally used to describe the family Broconidae (parasitic wasps) for whom 14,000 species have been described (compared to only 10,000 bird species world wide).
Cancer is to the ________, Capricorn is to the ________.
What is the singular form of taxa?
What are the neotropics?
The tropics of Central and South America.
What is the current estimate for the age of the Earth?
4.6 billion years
What is the current estimate for the age of life on Earth?
3.9 billion years
What is “deep time”?
Deep time is geologic time, its pre-human history; it’s the history of the earth.
The Young Earth theory proposed by Archbishop Ussher suggested the Earth started in _________.
What are the four general terms used to describe geologic time, starting with the most broad to the least?
Eons, eras, periods, and epochs
What are the three principles/laws of stratigraphy?
Law of superposition
Principle of original horizontality
Principle of lateral continuity
What is the law of superposition?
Oldest strata on bottom, youngest on top.
What is the principle of original horizontality?
The idea that strata were originally laid down horizontally.
What is the principle of lateral continuity?
Layers of sediment originally extended in all directions.
What is Nicolas Steno known for?
He was the first to propose that fossils buried deeper than other fossils represent older, often extinct animals.
What is Cuvier best known for?
He is known for his work in paleontology, and for establishing extinction as a fact.
What is William Smith best known for?
He used biostratigraphy to make the first geological map of England.
What are the 5 major biomes?
Arctic tundra, rainforest, boreal forest, deserts, and grasslands.