Describe Elizabeth Phelps binding item to context
Phelps used amnesiacs and controls to study amnesiacs' memory deficits. Participants were presented, on a screen, with various geometrical figures that resembled the letter "T". The participants' task was to press a button whenever they saw a lopsided "T". Whenever the target letter appeared (lopsided T) a pattern of geometrical figures was also present. By identifying this patter one could answer faster if the the lopsided "T" was on the screen the whole configuration acted as a cue. Results show that whereas controls were able to use the configuration and respond faster to the target letter (implicit memory for the context to find the letter faster), the amnesiacs were not able to use the configuration to improve their reaction times to recognize the target letter. This means that the problem with the amnesiacs is not that they have poor explicit memories and good implicit memory, but that they can't attach a spatio-temporal context to their memories, so they have problems binding items to contexts.