Geology

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Author:
lolita91
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43275
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Geology
Updated:
2010-10-19 00:48:08
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Geology Geologic Time
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Test 3
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  1. The study of the spatial and temporal relationships between bodies of rock is called
    ____________________.
    stratigraphy
  2. The geological time scale is the ____________ framework in which geologists view Earth
    history.
    temporal
  3. Both _________________ and absolute scales are included in the geological time scale.
    relativistic
  4. Beds represent a depositional event. They are _________ 1 cm in thickness.
    greater than
  5. Laminations are similar to beds but are ___________ 1 cm in thickness.
    less than
  6. The idea that most beds are laid down horizontally or nearly so is called the
    Principle of Original Horizontality
  7. The idea that beds extend laterally in three dimensions until they thin to zero thickness is called
    the
    Principle of Original Continuity or simple the Principle of Continuity
  8. The idea that younger beds are deposited on top of older beds is called the
    Principle of Superposition
  9. The idea that a dike transecting bedding must be younger than the bedding it crosses is called
    the
    Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
  10. The idea that fossil content will change upward within a formation is called the
    Principle of Fossil Succession
  11. An unconformity represents an absence of ________________ due to erosion or nondeposition.
    sedimentation
  12. What does surface AB represent in the following illustration?
    angular unconformity
  13. What does surface ABC represent in the following illustration?
    nonconformity
  14. What does surface ABC represent in the following illustration?
    disconformity
  15. A unit that displays a different lithological aspect relative to rocks above and below is called a
    __________________________________ unit.
    rock-stratigraphic unit
  16. The most common rock-stratigraphic unit is the _________________.
    formation
  17. Formations can be subdivided into ___________________.
    members
  18. Members can be subdivided into ___________________.
    beds
  19. Two or more formations compose a ___________________.
    group
  20. All rocks around the globe that formed during the same interval of time form a
    _________________________________ unit.
    time-stratigraphic
  21. Which of the following is not a time-stratigraphic unit?
    none of the above
  22. The primary time-stratigraphic unit is the ___________________.
    system
  23. A system is subdivided into ___________________.
    series
  24. The stage is the ________________ subdivision of time-stratigraphic units.
    smallest
  25. The eonothem is the ________________ subdivision of time-stratigraphic units is the
    largest
  26. Paleontologists have traced the lineage of Homo back to Australopithecus afarenses. This now
    extinct ancestor of Homo lived in the Paleocene between about _______ and _______ million
    years ago.
    4, 2.7
  27. Geological time units correspond to the time that a specified _____________________ was
    deposited.
    time-stratigraphic unit
  28. The geologic-time unit representing the longest interval of time is the __________.
    eon
  29. The geologic-time unit representing the smallest interval of time is the ____________.
    age
  30. The geologic-time unit corresponding to the time that a system was deposited is the
    ___________.
    period
  31. The geologic-time unit corresponding to the time that a series was deposited is the __________.
    epoch
  32. The geologic-time unit corresponding to the time that an erathem was deposited is the
    ___________.
    era
  33. The geologic-time unit corresponding to the time that an eonothem was deposited is the
    ___________.
    eon
  34. Geologists use both ____________ and ____________ criteria to correlate strata.
    physical, biological
  35. What is the oldest age obtained from a mineral or rock on our planet?
    4.4 billion years
  36. How old is the Acasta gneiss and why is it significant?
    4.03 billion years – oldest dated rocks on planet Earth
  37. Why is the evolution of the cyanobacteria important to the evolution of an oxygen-rich
    atmosphere on planet Earth?
    • Cyanobacteria utilized photosynthesis to convert light into chemical energy. The products of
    • this process are glucose and oxygen. Hence, cyanobacteria were essential for the development
    • of an oxygen-rich atmosphere.
  38. During the Proterozoic, between about ________ billion years and _________ million years
    ago, the development of multicellular organisms with nuclei developed. These organisms
    eventually led to the development of the plants, spiders, fungi, and protists, and are called
    2.5, 543, eukaryotes
  39. The first life forms on planet Earth occur during the Archean between about _______ and
    _______ billion years ago, and are called
    4.0, 2.5, (d) prokaryotes
  40. What is the age of the Earth?
    4.6 billion years
  41. The first animals with preservable hard parts first appear in the _______________?
    Cambrian
  42. Why is Cooksonia significant, and in what approximate time range did it evolve?
    first vascular land plant – evolved approximately 443 – 417 million years ago
  43. In what system is Cooksonia first found?
    Silurian
  44. During ____________________ there were there vast swamps and peat bogs in the eastern and
    mid-western US. This period lasted from _________ to __________ million years ago.
    Pennsylvanian, 323, 290
  45. What is Rodinia?
    first supercontinent to form on planet Earth
  46. When did Rodinia form?
    Late Proterozoic (~1.1 b.y. to ~750 m.y. ago)
  47. The dinosaurs evolved and become dominant during the _____________, between about
    ________ and __________ million years ago?
    Mesozoic, 248, 65
  48. The Great Dying occurred about _________ million years ago at the close of the
    248, Permian
  49. What is the age of the meteorite impact at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary?
    65 million years
  50. Giant glaciers occupy the central portion of North America during the Pleistocene about
    _______ million years to ____________ years ago?
    1.8, 10,000
  51. A world-wide drop in _____________ may have contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs
    by destroying their ____________ habitats.
    sea level, coastal
  52. An increase in ___________activity in western India, along with a drop in sea level, and a
    meteorite impact led to extinctions of many of the ________________, ~65 m.y. ago.
    volcanic, dinosaurs
  53. When did the Earth first develop an atmosphere and oceans?
    Archean - ~4.0-2.5 b.y. ago
  54. What epoch do we live in?
    Holocene
  55. In what period do primates first appear?
    early Tertiary
  56. What is Pangaea and when did it form?
    second supercontinent to form on planet Earth - ~248 m.y. ago
  57. The Earth formed from a cloud of gas and dust orbiting the Sun. During its formation and early
    history it was bombarded by comets and asteroids, and its surface was probably
    Molten
  58. List below at least one creature the lived during the Pleistocene.
    Cro-Magnon, wholly rhinoceros, mammoth, saber-tooth cat, etc.
  59. Which of the following are possible contributors to the great extinctions that occurred at the
    close of the Permian?
    (a) A bolide impact at Bedout High along the NW margin of Australia
    (b) Eruption and formation of the Siberian Traps, and the resulting elevation of the global
    temperature by 5oC
    (c) Release of methane stored under the worlds oceans
    (d) Death of the dinosaurs
    (e) None of the above
    • (a), (b), and (c) are all possible contributors to the great extinctions at the close of the Permian –
    • However, please be aware that some (many) scientists do not accept the evidence for (a) a
    • bolide impact at Bedout High
  60. Did man evolved before or after the dinosaurs?
    after

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