PSY 336 CH.7

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PSY 336 CH.7
2010-10-19 04:58:07

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  1. Hemisphere Specialization
    • Right Hemisphere
    • Left Hemisphere
  2. Right Hemisphere (Hemisphere Specialization)
    • Responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli
    • Unconcious; Automatic
    • "Primary Appraisal"
  3. Primary Appraisals
    • One system provides an immediate, unconcious evaluation of whether the stimulus is good or bad
    • Automatic emotion reactions to events and objects in the environment, which motivate rapid approach or avoidance responses
    • Probably involves the amygdala
  4. Left Hemisphere (Hemisphere Specialization)
    • Is more ready to interpret experience in terms of language
    • Concious; though-like; gives rise to specific emotions
    • "Secondary Appraisal"
  5. Secondary Appraisal
    Provide more deliberate, concious, complex assessments in terms of such matters as what caused the event and what to do about it
  6. Murphy & Zajonc (1993) Experiment
    • Subjects are shown photos of people smiling or displaying facial anger
    • "Suboptimal" subliminal condition, viewed photos for 4 min and had no idea what face they had seen
    • "Optimal" sondition, viewed photos fo 1 sec and were clearly aware of which faces they had viewed
    • After viewing faces, all subjects viewed Chinese ideographs and rated how much the liked them
    • For the suboptimal faces, smiling face led subjects to express greater liking for the Chinese ideographs that followed them
    • No such priming appeared with the opitmally presented faces
    • When we are conciously aware of emotionally charged stimuli, they are less likely to sway our judgements of other stimuli
  7. Negative Evaluations
    • Appear to be more potent than our positive evaluations
    • Makes evolutionary sense, since it is better to pay attention danger than safety
  8. Discrete Approaches
    • Emphasizes that unique appraisals give rise to different emotions
    • Primary appraisal is not just positive or negative; each mode is a state of readiness
    • Secondary appraisal --> core relational theme (the essential meaning for each emotion)
  9. Dimensional Approaches
    • Focus on the many components of appraisals that relate to different emotions
    • Dimensions are the basic units of the meaning ascribed to events in your life
    • Emotions are found to be defined by a distinct pattern of appraisals
    • Certain demensions stand out in their ability to differentiate among related emotions
    • Causality is important in emotion-related appraisal
    • ... the same negative event may happento you but which emotion you experience will depend on how you appraise the causes
    • EX. Not doing well on exam- whether it was your fault (guilt) or someone else's fault (anger) will determine your emotion
  10. Emotional Lexicon Properties
    • Emotional words
    • Applying a label to an emotional experience helps identify the intentional onject of an experience
    • Many emotion words have metaphorical content
    • Our emotional lexicon has structure
    • Broadest (superordinate) level, basic level of knowledge, subordinate level
    • Culture differences (hyperrecognized emotions)
  11. Concept of Emotions as Prototypes
    • People tend to to think about emotions in term of prototypes (something like a script)
    • Implies that there are no sharp boundaries between emotion categories
    • Helps account for the varieties of experiences that are represented by one category of emotion