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Briefly define dysarthria:
A collective name for a group of neurologic speech disorders caused by disturbances in the CNS and PNS.
What are the Cranial Nerves involved in motor speech disorders and apraxia of speech?
CN V (Trigeminal), CN VII (Facial), CN IX (Glossopharyngeal), CN X (Vagus), CN XI (Accessory/Spinal), and CN XII (Hypoglossal)
What are the sensory and motor functions of CN V (Trigeminal)?
Sensation from the face; motor to masseters, palate, pharynx
What are the sensory and motor functions of CN VII (Facial)?
Sensation from the anterior tongue; motor to the facial muscles
What are the sensory and motor functions of CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)?
Sensation from the posterior tongue, soft palate, pharynx; motor to pharynx
What are the sensory and motor functions of CN X (Vagus)?
Sensation from viscera; motor to larynx, pharynx, viscera
What are the sensory and motor functions of CN XI (Accessory/Spinal)?
Motor to larynx, chest, shoulder
What are the sensory and motor functions of CN XII (Hypoglossal)?
Motor to tongue
What are the six major types of dysarthria? What are the localizations and neuromotor symptoms of each?
- 1. FLACCID: LMN (FCP, motor unit), WEAKNESS
- 2. SPASTIC: Bilateral UMN (DAP, IAP), SPASTICITY
- 3. ATAXIC: Cerebellum (cerebellar control circuit), INCOORDINATION
- 4. HYPOKINETIC: Basal ganglia control circuit (extrapyramidal), RIGIDITY OR REDUCED RANGE OF MOVEMENT
- 5. HYPERKINETIC: Basal ganglia control circuit (extrapyramidal), ABNORMAL MOVEMENTS
- 6. MIXED: more than one (all possible combinations of single types), MORE THAN ONE (VARIOUS RELATIONSHIPS)
The DAP originates in the _____________ travels as the __________________ tract(s) to control skilled movements carried via the FCP.
Cerebral cortex; corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts
The IAP also originates in the _____________, then travels ____________________________________.
Cerebral cortex; to multiple points in the CNS, mostly in the brainstem
The final destination of the DAP and the IAP is ___________________.
LMN (Cranial and spinal nerve nuclei)
The IAP regulates what 3 things?
1. Provides a stable framework for skilled movements; 2. Maintains posture; 3. Maintains tone
The two control circuits are the ____________ and _____________.
Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar
CSF stands for _____________ which is produced in the ___________ and enters the spinal cord via the _____________.
Cerebral Spinal Fluid; choroid plexus in the laterals; foramen magnum
An example of a disorder of the CSF is ______________.
CPG stands for ___________________.
Central Pattern Generator
An example of a disordered CPG is _________________.
The substantia nigra is anatomically a structure composed of which two parts?
Pars Compacta and Pars Reticulata
In Parkinson�s disease the substantia nigra produces insufficient amounts of the neurotransmitter, ________________.
An example of a disease of the basal ganglia is _________________.
Histologically, the reticular formation is unlike other nuclei in that it is ____________________________.
It is a loosely knit scattering of cells
What are the Six pathways of the reticular formation?
- 1. Corticoreticulospinal Tract
- 2. Corticoreticular tract
- 3. Reticulospinal tract
- 4. Reticulobulbar tract
- 5. Reticulothalamic tract
- 6. Spinoreticular tract
What is Decorticate?
Abnormal flexion; the upper extremities are rigidly flexed at the elbows and at the wrists and the legs are extended
What is Decerebrate?
Extension posturing; increased excitation of upper and lower extremities
Each cerebellar hemisphere is connected CONTRA/IPSI- laterally to the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere?
Each cerebellar hemisphere controls movements on the CONTRA/IPSI-lateral side?
The sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex comprise the middle layer of the cerebellar cortex, they synapse deep inside the cerebellum, and are called INTRAFUSAL/BASAL GANGLIA/PURKINJE cells?
Of the deep cerebellar nuclei, the one most important for speech control does so by actively initiating movement, executing preplanned motor tasks, and regulating posture. This nucleus is the FLOCCULUS/GLOBUS/DENTATE?