MSD midterm.txt

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MSD midterm.txt
2010-10-19 05:48:00
MSD midterm

Motor Speech Midterm
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  1. Briefly define dysarthria:
    A collective name for a group of neurologic speech disorders caused by disturbances in the CNS and PNS.
  2. What are the Cranial Nerves involved in motor speech disorders and apraxia of speech?
    CN V (Trigeminal), CN VII (Facial), CN IX (Glossopharyngeal), CN X (Vagus), CN XI (Accessory/Spinal), and CN XII (Hypoglossal)
  3. What are the sensory and motor functions of CN V (Trigeminal)?
    Sensation from the face; motor to masseters, palate, pharynx
  4. What are the sensory and motor functions of CN VII (Facial)?
    Sensation from the anterior tongue; motor to the facial muscles
  5. What are the sensory and motor functions of CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)?
    Sensation from the posterior tongue, soft palate, pharynx; motor to pharynx
  6. What are the sensory and motor functions of CN X (Vagus)?
    Sensation from viscera; motor to larynx, pharynx, viscera
  7. What are the sensory and motor functions of CN XI (Accessory/Spinal)?
    Motor to larynx, chest, shoulder
  8. What are the sensory and motor functions of CN XII (Hypoglossal)?
    Motor to tongue
  9. What are the six major types of dysarthria? What are the localizations and neuromotor symptoms of each?
    • 1. FLACCID: LMN (FCP, motor unit), WEAKNESS
    • 2. SPASTIC: Bilateral UMN (DAP, IAP), SPASTICITY
    • 3. ATAXIC: Cerebellum (cerebellar control circuit), INCOORDINATION
    • 4. HYPOKINETIC: Basal ganglia control circuit (extrapyramidal), RIGIDITY OR REDUCED RANGE OF MOVEMENT
    • 5. HYPERKINETIC: Basal ganglia control circuit (extrapyramidal), ABNORMAL MOVEMENTS
    • 6. MIXED: more than one (all possible combinations of single types), MORE THAN ONE (VARIOUS RELATIONSHIPS)
  10. The DAP originates in the _____________ travels as the __________________ tract(s) to control skilled movements carried via the FCP.
    Cerebral cortex; corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts
  11. The IAP also originates in the _____________, then travels ____________________________________.
    Cerebral cortex; to multiple points in the CNS, mostly in the brainstem
  12. The final destination of the DAP and the IAP is ___________________.
    LMN (Cranial and spinal nerve nuclei)
  13. The IAP regulates what 3 things?
    1. Provides a stable framework for skilled movements; 2. Maintains posture; 3. Maintains tone
  14. The two control circuits are the ____________ and _____________.
    Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar
  15. CSF stands for _____________ which is produced in the ___________ and enters the spinal cord via the _____________.
    Cerebral Spinal Fluid; choroid plexus in the laterals; foramen magnum
  16. An example of a disorder of the CSF is ______________.
  17. CPG stands for ___________________.
    Central Pattern Generator
  18. An example of a disordered CPG is _________________.
    Huntington�s disease
  19. The substantia nigra is anatomically a structure composed of which two parts?
    Pars Compacta and Pars Reticulata
  20. In Parkinson�s disease the substantia nigra produces insufficient amounts of the neurotransmitter, ________________.
  21. An example of a disease of the basal ganglia is _________________.
    Wilson�s disease
  22. Histologically, the reticular formation is unlike other nuclei in that it is ____________________________.
    It is a loosely knit scattering of cells
  23. What are the Six pathways of the reticular formation?
    • 1. Corticoreticulospinal Tract
    • 2. Corticoreticular tract
    • 3. Reticulospinal tract
    • 4. Reticulobulbar tract
    • 5. Reticulothalamic tract
    • 6. Spinoreticular tract
  24. What is Decorticate?
    Abnormal flexion; the upper extremities are rigidly flexed at the elbows and at the wrists and the legs are extended
  25. What is Decerebrate?
    Extension posturing; increased excitation of upper and lower extremities
  26. Each cerebellar hemisphere is connected CONTRA/IPSI- laterally to the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere?
  27. Each cerebellar hemisphere controls movements on the CONTRA/IPSI-lateral side?
    Ipsilateral side
  28. The sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex comprise the middle layer of the cerebellar cortex, they synapse deep inside the cerebellum, and are called INTRAFUSAL/BASAL GANGLIA/PURKINJE cells?
    Purkinje cells
  29. Of the deep cerebellar nuclei, the one most important for speech control does so by actively initiating movement, executing preplanned motor tasks, and regulating posture. This nucleus is the FLOCCULUS/GLOBUS/DENTATE?