Bacteriology 1.2

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RaiderRandi
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43332
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Bacteriology 1.2
Updated:
2010-10-19 16:55:30
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micro
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test 3 ppt 1
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  1. staphylococcus structural molecules
    • capsule
    • protein A
    • polysaccharide A
    • bound coagulase
  2. staphylococcus extra-cellular enzymes
    • coagulase
    • tissue destruction
    • -hyaluronidase
    • -staphylokinase
    • -lipase
    • beta-lactamas
    • -penicillinase
  3. MRSA stands for
    Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus
  4. MRSA facts
    • subgroup (~40%) of S. aureus that is resistant to drugs including penicillin
    • accounts for majority of infections
    • flesh eating
  5. MRSA death rate
    a patient with a hospital acquired infection is about 7 times more likely to die than an uninfected patient
  6. MRSA treated with...
    • vancomycin
    • but signs that these strains are now developing a resistance
  7. Hemolysins
    • (endo)toxin in staphylococcus
    • broken down into alpha, beta, gamma, and sigma Sphingomylinease C
    • lyse RBC
    • know that there are many types
  8. Leukocidin
    • (endo)toxin of staphylococcus
    • lyse leukocytes
  9. Exfoliatin
    • (endo)toxin of staphylococcus
    • deals with skin
  10. enterotoxins
    • toxins of staphylococcus
    • causes gut problems
  11. TSST-1
    • Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1
    • toxin of staphylococcus
    • super antigen
    • causes T cells to be released, but they do nothing besides cause fever
  12. TSST-1 structure
    • TCR alpha chain
    • TCR beta chain
    • MHC II alpha chain
    • MHC II beta chain
    • TSST
    • antigen peptide in middle
  13. skin infections from staphylococcus
    • direct tissue invasion
    • boils (furuncles)
    • carbuncles
  14. organ infection from staphylococcus
    • direct organ invasion
    • pneumonia
    • meningitis
    • acute endocarditis
    • others
  15. exotoxin release of staphylococcus
    • scaled skin syndrome
    • gastroenteritis
    • toxic-shock syndrome
  16. skin infection of staphylococcus steps
    • invasion
    • inflammation
    • suppuration (pus formation)
    • abscess formation in sebaceous gland
  17. scaled skin syndrome
    • from staphylococcus
    • bullous impetigo
    • Ritter's disease
  18. Gastroenteritis
    • caused by enterotoxins
    • food poisoning
    • infection
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • abdominal pain
    • nausea
  19. Toxic Shock syndrome symptoms
    • caused by TSST-1 superantigen
    • fever
    • septic shock
    • diffuse erythematous rash
    • desquamation of palms and soles
    • vomiting and diarrhea
  20. Treatment of staphylococcus
    • Antibiotics
    • drainage
    • vaccine
  21. antibiotics used on staphylococcus
    • penicillin
    • vancomycin
  22. vaccines used on staphyloccus
    • capsular polysaccharide
    • RAP (RNA activating protein)
  23. prevention of staphylococcus
    • breaks in skin or mucous membrane
    • clean wounds with iodine or hexachlorophene
  24. sources of staphylococcus
    • shedding human lesion
    • material contaminated
    • skin/respiratory tract secretions
  25. how to minimize staphylococcus
    • hand washing
    • sterilization of instruments
    • covering exposed skin area
    • exclude personnel with active S.aureus lesion
  26. strep- shape
    in a row
  27. staphylococci features
    • gram positive
    • non motile
    • non-spore forming
    • pyogenic
    • normal flora
    • catalase positive
    • facultative
  28. streptococci features
    • gram positive
    • non-motile
    • non-spore forming
    • pyogenic
    • normal flora
    • **catalase negative
    • facultative or resistant
  29. streptococcus hemolytic type
    • **alpha hemolytic (semi)
    • **beta hemolytic (complete)
    • gamma none-hyemolytic
  30. streptococcus serologic type group specific
    • C carbohydrate
    • Lancefield group
    • A,B,D,....V
  31. streptococcus serologic type; type specific
    • capsule polysaccharides
    • cell wall with protein M, T, and R
  32. Beta hemolytic streptococci
    • cause most streptococci infections
    • most virulent in group A
  33. Protein M in streptococcus
    with Group A strep are virulent
  34. S. pyoogenes
    • Group A (GAS)
    • streptococcus
    • has M protein, so resistant to phagocytosis
  35. GAS enzymes
    • streptokinase (fibrinolysin)
    • deoxyribonuclease (DNase)
    • Hyaluronidase
  36. GAS proteins
    • **Pyrogenic exotoxins (erythrogenic toxins)
    • Streptolysins (O-oxygen labile and S-oxygen Stable)
  37. S. mutans
    causes dental caries
  38. M protein
    • resistant to phagocytosis
    • inhibits binding of C3b to bacterial cell surface
    • alpha helical structure
  39. Streptococcus group A pathogenesis
    • Infection is localized and invasive
    • likes to live in the skin
    • toxin related
    • **post-infectious autoimmune diseases
  40. Group A localized infections
    • strepococcal pharyngitis
    • scarlet fever
    • streptococcal impetigo (pyoderma)
  41. streptococcal pharyngitis
    • strep throat
    • Beta-hemo
    • produces pyrogenic toxin that causes scarlet fever
  42. Streptococcus invasive diseases
    • erysipelas
    • necrotizing fasciitis (streptococcal gangrene
  43. S.pyogenes
    • "flesh-eating bacteria"
    • causes necrotizing fasciitis
  44. streptococcus toxin release
    • streptococcal toxin shock syndrome
    • M protein
    • pyrogenic toxins
  45. streptococcus post-infection autoimmunity
    • rheumatic fever
    • acute glomerulonephritis
    • strep throat
  46. streptococcus treatment
    • antibiotic
    • -penicillin G,V
    • -erythromycin
    • -penicillinase resistant penicillin
    • or vaccine
  47. streptococcus pneumoniae
    • aka pneumococci
    • alpha hemolytic
    • gram (+)
    • diplococci
    • facultative
    • throat and nasopharynx flora
  48. most common cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis
    • streptococcus pneumoniae
    • aka pneumococci
  49. streptococcus pneumoniae virulent factors
    • **polysaccharide capsule
    • IgA protease
    • pneumolysin
  50. Streptococcus pneumoniae typing
    • based on capsular polysaccharide
    • **Quelling (swelling)reaction or capsule test
  51. pathogenesis of pneumonia
    • Viral infection or impaired mucus drainage
    • causes epithelial damage
    • causes S.pneumoniae invasion
  52. S. pneumoniae clinical manifestation
    • abrupt onset
    • chills and very high fever
    • chest pain
    • blood-tinged sputum
    • post viral infection
  53. S. pneumoniae treatment/control
    • Penicillin G
    • erythromycin
    • ceftriaxone
    • vaccine (23 types)

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